Browse all cell signaling pathways

Cell signaling pathways can be generally categorized into groups based on area of biology. Here, you can explore all available pathways, including those that fall under a variety of areas of biology—from angiogenesis and apoptosis to bone biology, metabolism, transcription factors, and others.

View pathways by area of biology

Angiopoietin-TIE2 Signaling

The angiopoietins are a new family of growth factor ligands that bind to TIE2/TEK RTK (Receptor Tyrosine Kinase).

Antigen Processing and Presentation by MHCs

Antigen processing and presentation are the processes that result in association of proteins with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules for recognition by a T-cell.

Apoptosis Through Death Receptors

Certain cells have unique sensors, termed death receptors (DRs), which detect the presence of extracellular death signals and rapidly ignite the cell's intrinsic apoptosis machinery.

B-Cell Development Pathway

In immune responses, APRIL acts as a co-stimulator for B-cell and T-cell proliferation and supports class switch.

B-Cell Receptor Complex

The B-cell receptor (BCR) complex usually consists of an antigen-binding subunit that is composed of two Ig heavy chains, two Ig light chains, and a signaling subunit.

Cancer Immunoediting

The immune system attempts to constrain tumor growth, but sometimes tumor cells might escape or attenuate this immune pressure.

CCR5 Pathway in Macrophages

C-C motif chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is a member of the chemokine receptor subclass of the G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily.

CD4 and CD8 T-Cell Lineage

Each mature T-cell generally retains expression of the co-receptor molecule (CD4 or CD8) that has a major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding property that matches that of its T-cell receptor (TCR).

Cellular Apoptosis Pathway

Apoptosis is a naturally occurring process by which a cell is directed to programmed cell death.

CTL-Mediated Apoptosis

The cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), also known as killer T-cells, are produced during cell-mediated immunity designed to remove body cells displaying a foreign epitope.

CTLA4 Signaling Pathway

The co-stimulatory CTLA4 pathway attenuates or down-regulates T-cell activation. CTLA4 is designed to remove body cells displaying a foreign epitope.

Cytokine Network

Cytokines have been classified on the basis of their biological responses into pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines, depending on their effects on immunocytes.

ErbB Family Pathway

The ErbB family of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) plays an important role during the growth and development of organs.

Fas Signaling

FAS (also called APO1 or CD95) is a death domain–containing member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily.

Granulocyte Adhesion and Diapedesis

Adhesion and diapedesis of granulocytes have mostly been analyzed in context to non-lymphoid endothelium.

Hematopoiesis from Multipotent Stem Cells

Hematopoietic stem cells are classified into long-term, short-term and multipotent progenitors, based on the extent of their self-renewal abilities.

Hematopoiesis from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Pluripotent stem cells are capable of forming virtually all of the possible tissue types found in human beings.

ICos-ICosL Pathway in T-Helper Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

IL-2 Gene Expression in Activated and Quiescent T-Cells

IL-2 is a cytokine that stimulates the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T-cells, B-cells, NK cells, and other immune cells.

MAPK Family Pathway

Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) belong to a large family of serine/threonine protein kinases that are conserved in organisms as diverse as yeast and humans.

Nanog in Mammalian ESC Pluripotency

NANOG is a transcription factor transcribed in pluripotent stem cells and is down-regulated upon cell differentiation.

p53-Mediated Apoptosis Pathway

Tumor protein p53 is a nuclear transcription factor that regulates the expression of a wide variety of genes involved in apoptosis, growth arrest, or senescence in response to genotoxic or cellular stress.

Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic symmetric polyarticular joint disease that primarily affects the small joints of the hands and feet.

PI3K Signaling in B Lymphocytes

The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) regulate numerous biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, survival, proliferation, migration, and metabolism.

RANK Signaling in Osteoclasts

RANKL induces the differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells and stimulates the resorption function and survival of mature osteoclasts.

TGF-Beta Pathway

Members of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta family play an important role in the development, homeostasis, and repair of most tissues.

THC Differentiation Pathway

T-helper cells of type 1 (TH1) and type 2 (TH2) are derived from T-helper cells and provide help to cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems.

TNF Signaling Pathway

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine with effects on lipid metabolism, coagulation, insulin resistance, and endothelial function.

TNF Superfamily Pathway

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily consists of 19 members that signal through 29 receptors that are members of the TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamily.

Transendothelial Migration of Leukocytes

Transport of plasma proteins and solutes across the endothelium involves two different routes: transcellular and paracellular junctions.

Tumoricidal Effects of Hepatic NK Cells

The liver is a major site for the formation and metastasis of tumors.

VEGF Family of Ligands and Receptor Interactions

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a highly-conserved genetic pathway that has evolved from simple to complex systems.