An autophagosome is a spherical structure with double layer membranes. It is a central organelle in autophagy, the process of degrading bulk cytoplasmic contents including damaged organelles. The autophagosome encloses the materials to be degraded and then fuses with the lysosome which contains hydrolases and other degradation enzymes.

Autophagy occurs regularly in the cell but increases in circumstances of hormonal stimulation, starvation, and drug treatments. It is crucial in such cellular processes as cell differentiation, aging, and cell death. Defects in the process of autophagy are linked to several human diseases including muscular disorders, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and pathogen infections.

Autophagosome marker antibodies detect proteins specific to the autophagosome and can aid in the study of the structure, function, and formation of the autophagosome. Autophagosome marker antibodies can also help detect autophagic activity in a cell. Quality Invitrogen autophagosome marker antibodies are available for a variety of research needs.

Autophagosome marker antibody targets

  • ATG5
  • ATG12
  • LC3A
  • LC3B
  • MAP1LC3A
  • MAP1LC3B
  • RAB11

Featured product data

Immunofluorescence analysis of Rab11 on 70% confluent log-phase U2OS cells. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 15 minutes, permeabilized with 0.25% Triton X-100 for 10 minutes, and blocked with 5% BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were labeled with Rab11 rabbit polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. 71-5300) at 2 µg/mL in 1% BSA, incubated for 3 hours at room temperature, and then labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody (Cat. No. A-11008) at a dilution of 1:400 for 30 minutes at room temperature (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with SlowFade™ Gold Antifade Mountant DAPI (Cat. No. S36938). F-actin (Panel c: red) was stained with Alexa Fluor 594-conjugated phalloidin (Cat. No. A12381). Panel d is a merged image showing cytoplasmic localization. Panel e is a negative control (no primary antibody). The images were captured at 20x magnification.

Flow cytometry analysis of Rab11 from HeLa cells. Cells were fixed with 70% ethanol for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.25% Triton X-100 for 20 minutes, and blocked with 5% BSA for 30 minutes at room temperature. Cells were labeled with Rab11 recombinant rabbit polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. 71-5300, red histogram) or with rabbit isotype control (pink histogram) at 3–5 µg/million cells in 2.5% BSA. After incubation at room temperature for 2 hours, the cells were labeled with Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (Cat. No. A-11008) at a dilution of 1:400 for 30 minutes at room temperature. The representative 10,000 cells were acquired and analyzed for each sample using an Applied Biosystems Attune NxT Flow Cytometer. The purple histogram represents unstained control cells and the green histogram represents no-primary-antibody control.

Annotated product references

Cat. No. PA1-16930 was used in immunohistochemistry and western blot to investigate the effect of oligemic hypoperfusion on tau and amyloid-beta in 3xTg-Alzheimer disease mice. The American journal of pathology (Jul 2010; 177: 300) "Oligemic hypoperfusion differentially affects tau and amyloid-{beta}." Koike MA,Green KN,Blurton-Jones M,Laferla FM

Cat. No. PA1-775 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of actin polymerization in controlling ABCB1a multidrug efflux activation at fertilization. Molecular biology of the cell (Sep 2012; 23: 3663) "Actin polymerization controls the activation of multidrug efflux at fertilization by translocation and fine-scale positioning of ABCB1 on microvilli." Whalen K,Reitzel AM,Hamdoun A

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