Exosomes are small vesicles composed of a lipid bilayer. Exosomes are formed when certain endosomes, called multivesicular bodies, fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing them into the extracellular environment. They may also be directly released from the plasma membrane.

Each exosome contains various cytoplasmic and membrane proteins in addition to lipids and RNA molecules. These components vary according to the exosome’s cell of origin. Exosomes are present in cell culture media and in body fluids such as blood, urine, saliva, amniotic fluid, and malignant ascites. Exosomes play important roles in processes like coagulation, waste management, and intercellular signaling. They are also of interest for clinical applications such as therapy, prognosis, and markers for disease. Learn more about exosome research.

Exosomal marker antibodies detect proteins specific to the exosomes and can aid in the study of the morphology and dynamics of the exosome. Exosomal marker antibodies can also help elucidate the role or roles a protein may play in a number of tasks that are centered in or influenced by the exosome. Quality Invitrogen exosomal marker antibodies are available for your research needs.

Exosomal marker antibody targets

  • CD81
  • CD9
  • HSPA8
  • HSC70/HSC7

Featured product data

Immunofluorescent analysis of CD81 (green) showing staining in the membrane of U-87 MG cells (right) compared to a negative control without primary antibody (left). Formalin-fixed cells were permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 in TBS for 5–10 minutes and blocked with 3% BSA-PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature. Cells were probed with a CD81 monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. MA5-13548) in 3% BSA-PBS at a dilution of 1:20 and incubated overnight at 4°C in a humidified chamber. Cells were washed with PBST and incubated with a DyLight 488−conjugated secondary antibody in PBS at room temperature in the dark. F-actin (red) was stained with a fluorescent red phalloidin and nuclei (blue) were stained with Hoechst or DAPI. Images were taken at a magnification of 60x.

Flow cytometry analysis of CD81 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells compared to an isotype control (blue). Human blood was collected, combined with a hydrophilic polysaccharide, centrifuged, transferred to a conical tube and washed with PBS. Cell solution (50 µL) was added to each tube at a dilution of 2 x 107 cells/mL, followed by the addition of 50 µL of isotype control and CD81 monoclonal primary antibody (Cat. No. MA5-13548) at a dilution of 0.5 µg/test. Cells were incubated for 30 minutes at 4°C and washed with a cell buffer, followed by incubation with a DyLight 488−conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) secondary antibody (Cat. No. 35502) for 30 minutes at 4°C in the dark. FACS analysis was performed using 400 µL of cell buffer.

Annotated product references

Cat. No. MA1-26078 was used in western blot to study the beneficial effects of proteasome inhibitors on neurodegeneration in a murine model of cysteine string protein-alpha (CSP alpha) deficiency. Sharma M, Burré J, Südhof TC (2012) Proteasome inhibition alleviates SNARE-dependent neurodegeneration. Sci Transl Med 4:147ra113.

Cat. No. PA5-13582 was used in western blot to study the roles of MAPK-related kinase and MKNK-1 in HCV replication and cellular entry. Kim S, Ishida H, Yamane D et al. (2013) Contrasting roles of mitogen-activated protein kinases in cellular entry and replication of hepatitis C virus: MKNK1 facilitates cell entry. J Virol 87:4214− 4224.

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