Adaptive immunity is one of two ways by which vertebrates clear pathogens from the body. The adapative immune system provides long-term protection against specific pathogens. A variety of cell signaling pathways are involved in this area of biology, including the AKT signaling pathway, the Fas signaling pathway, and the RANK pathway.
Cell Signaling Pathways
Cellular signaling and immunology-related pathways
To view available pathways, click on the name of the area of biology you are interested in below. Once you select your pathway, you can review the pathway image, read further detail on the science of the pathway, access reference articles and link out to products for antigens that are involved in the pathway.
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Cell adhesion is the interaction of one cell with another cell or with the extracellular matrix (ECM), enabling cell migration and tissue maintenance. Two cell signaling pathways included in this area of biology are granulocyte adhesion and diapedesis as well as transendothelial migration of leukocytes.
Angiogenesis is the process by which new blood vessels are formed. It is important in growth and development as well as in wound healing, but it also plays a significant role in tumorigenesis. Several angiogenesis pathways include angiopoietin-TIE2 signaling and the VEGF family of ligands and receptor interactions.
Apoptosis is the tightly regulated process of controlled cell death in multicellular organisms. While it is an advantageous and often beneficial process, it can become unregulated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumorigenesis. Several important pathways fall under apoptosis, including the AKT signaling and the p53-mediated apoptosis pathways.
Bones are an important tissue, providing support for the body, protecting organs, producing blood cells, and storing minerals. Several pathways are involved in bone development and growth as well as bone remodeling, including the BMP and RANK pathways.
Cancer is a type of disease resulting from abnormal cell growth that has the possibility of metastasizing, or spreading to other parts of the body. Environmental toxins and genetic mutations can play a role in the development of tumors. Some of the most important pathways involved in cancer biology are the ErbB family pathway, the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway, and the GSK3 signaling pathway.
Cell proliferation is the process by which a cell divides and makes a copy of itself. Many signaling molecules, especially growth factors, have to impact the cell cycle in order for proliferation to successfully proceed. It is a process most active during development, and involves numerous pathways, including the AKT signaling and the TNF superfamily pathways.
Cytokines, chemokines (a type of cytokine), and growth factors are proteins that act as immune signaling molecules. They are many roles for cytokines in balancing the adaptive and innate immune responses as well as regulating certain cell populations. A number of pathways belong to this area of biology, including the IL-22 and the TWEAK pathways.
Innate immunity is one of two ways by which vertebrates clear pathogens from the body. Unlike the adaptive immune system, the innate immune system does not provide long-term immunity to specific pathogens. A variety of cell signaling pathways are involved in this area of biology, including the angiopoietin-TIE2 signaling pathway, GSK3 signaling pathway, and CCR5 pathway in macrophages.
Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that happen inside organisms to sustain their lives, including but not limited to digestion. Metabolic processes convert food to energy that cells then use to perform bodily functions, to build proteins, fats, and other important molecules, and to dispose of waste. Numerous signaling pathways are involved in metabolism, including the AKT and GSK3 signaling pathways.
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can both differentiate into any cell type and can continue to divide indefinitely—otherwise known as self-renewal. There are two broad types of stem cells, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells, and both are now useful for a wide range of research, engineering, and disease modeling capacities. A number of pathways fall under this area, including the BMP and FGF pathways.
Transcription factors are DNA-binding proteins that regulate the expression of genes. In the process, they can increase or decrease the level of transcription of specific genes. Because transcription factors influence the creation of proteins—which themselves can act as signaling molecules—there are a wide variety of pathways that fall under this area, including the AKT, JAK/STAT, and MAPK family pathways.
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