Learn about methods and technologies for protein labeling, modification, and crosslinking. Understand the chemical functional groups and reaction chemistries required to crosslink and conjugate proteins to one another; to label proteins with biotin, PEG, or fluorescent dyes; or to reduce, cleave, and fragment proteins for use in assays.

  • Crosslinking
  • Crosslinker chemistry
  • Conjugation reagents 
  • Bioconjugates
  • Covalent attachment
  • Functional groups
  • Reactive moieties
  • Amino acids
  • Amines
  • Sulfhydryls
  • Carboxyls
  • NHS esters
  • Maleimides
  • EDC (EDAC)
  • Molecular probes 
  • Fluorescent dyes
  • Biotinylation
  • PEGylation
  • Technical handbooks
  • Protein methods articles
  • Product application notes
  • Support center resources
  • Protocols
  • Product selection guides

Protein modification and crosslinking features

Methods article

Biological research often requires the use of molecular labels that are covalently attached to a protein of interest to facilitate detection or purification of the labeled protein and/or its binding partners. Labeling strategies result in the covalent attachment of different molecules, including biotin, reporter enzymes, and fluorophores.

Methods article

Crosslinking is the process of chemically joining two or more molecules by a covalent bond. Modification involves attaching or cleaving chemical groups to alter the solubility or other properties of the original molecule.


Protein modification and crosslinking learning resources

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Type Title
Handbook Protein Research Handbook (2016)
Handbook Thermo Scientific Crosslinking Technical Guide (2012)
Handbook The Molecular Probes Handbook (2010)
Methods article The Pierce Protein Methods Library
Methods article An Overview of Protein Labeling
Methods article Biotinylation
Methods article Metabolic Labeling and Chemoselective Ligation
Methods article An Overview of Crosslinking and Protein Modification
Methods article Chemistry of Crosslinking
Methods article Crosslinking Applications
Methods article Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) and Pegylation of Proteins
Methods article Carbodiimide Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods article Amine-Reactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods article Sulfhydryl-Reactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods article Carbonyl-Reactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods article Photoreactive Crosslinker Chemistry
Methods article Staudinger Ligation Reaction Chemistry
Methods article Crosslinking Protein Interaction Analysis
Methods article Label Transfer Protein Interaction Analysis
Methods article Methods for Labeling Nucleic Acids
Methods article Peptide Design
Methods article Peptide Synthesis
Methods article Amino Acid Physical Properties
Selection guide Biotinylation Reagent Selection Tool
Selection guide Fluorescent Labeling (Selection Guide)
Selection guide Staudinger Reagent Selection Guide
Selection guide Crosslinking Reagent Crosslinker Selection Guide
Selection guide In Vivo Crosslinking Selection Guide
Application note Product Application Notes
Application note Carrier protein activation and conjugation data for immunogen preparation. Experiments with KLH variants and other immunogens to validate solubility, maleimide activation consistency, peptide conjugation efficiency and immunogenicity.
Application note Improved immobilization and conjugation of glycoproteins. Efficient aldehyde-hydrazide covalent coupling using a catalyst and an optimized buffer.

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