The cytoskeleton provides support for the cell, components of the intracellular transport, and cell division. The cytoskeleton consists of three different protein filaments: microtubules, intermediate filaments, and microfilaments (actin).

Alpha/beta tubulin heterodimers polymerize to form microtubules. Microtubules are involved in many cell functions including maintenance of cell structure, intracellular transport, and the formation of mitotic spindles during cell division. The centrosome is the starting point for tubulin polymerization, and unique protein complexes containing gamma tubulin form the structure on which tubulin polymerization begins. Alpha tubulin and beta tubulin antibodies are good microtubule markers, while gamma tubulin antibodies mark the centrosome.

Intermediate filaments are composed of keratin heterodimers which consist of an acidic keratin and a basic keratin. The tissue in which they are expressed determines in part the primary types of intermediate filaments. Cytokeratins are expressed in epithelial cells, vimentin in cells of mesenchyme origin, while desmin is expressed in skeletal, visceral and some vascular smooth muscle cells.

Actin makes up the majority of the cytoskeleton, with at least six isoforms known in mammals. Actin filaments are composed of double helical cylindrical tubes of alpha actin or beta actin. Alpha actin is expressed in muscle cells, while beta actin and gamma actin are expressed primarily in non-muscle cells. Cytoskeleton marker antibodies act as fiducial markers in the imaging of live and fixed cells for both co-localization and orientation.

Cytoskeleton marker antibodies can also help elucidate the roles proteins may play in tasks that are centered in or influenced by the cytoskeleton. Quality Invitrogen cytoskeleton marker antibodies are available for a variety of research needs.

Cytoskeleton marker antibody targets

  • ACTB
  • ACTC1
  • ACTC2
  • CALR
  • DIg4
  • GAPDH
  • HSPB1
  • KRT17
  • MAP1LC3B
  • MAPT
  • NFATC2
  • NOS2
  • NOS3
  • TNNT2
  • TUBA1A
  • TUBB3

Featured product data

Immunofluorescent analysis of actin in HeLa cells. An actin polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA5-11570) was used at a dilution of 1:10–50, followed by a fluor-conjugated goat anti-rabbit secondary antibody (green). Nuclei were stained with DAPI (blue).


Immunohistochemical analysis of Tubulin alpha 1A in paraffin-embedded SAS xenograft. A tubulin alpha 1A polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA5-22060) was used at a dilution of 1:500.


Annotated product references

Cat. No. PA1-16889 was used in western blot to study the expression of the PAX5 gene and the presence of transactivation domain mutations in B cells of childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia research (Jan 2012; 36: 87) "Evaluation of PAX5 gene in the early stages of leukemic B cells in the childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia." Firtina S,Sayitoglu M,Hatirnaz O,Erbilgin Y,Oztunc C,Cinar S,Yildiz I,Celkan T,Anak S,Unuvar A,Devecioglu O,Timur C,Aydogan G,Akcay A,Atay D,Turkkan E,Karaman S,Orhaner B,Sarper N,Deniz G,Ozbek U

Cat. No. PA1-37024 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the effect of bevacizumab on vascular endothelial cells, pericytes and myofibroblasts of fibrovascular membranes in diabetic retinopathy. Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.) (May 2013; 33: 957) "Altered vascular microenvironment by bevacizumab in diabetic fibrovascular membrane." Nakao S,Ishikawa K,Yoshida S,Kohno R,Miyazaki M,Enaida H,Kono T,Ishibashi T