Can I sequence a peptide that is acetylated or biotinylated?

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Answer

No. These groups effectively block the N terminus.

Answer Id: E1267

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9938e76f3b572f7bc6c61808f1015d8a_FAQ

What is the smallest quantity of RNA detectable by the SuperScript® First-Strand System for RT-PCR?

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Answer

Detection limits dependend on many factors, including primer design, target size, and the abundance of message. In our hands, this system was able to detect GAPDH mRNA from as little as 1.0 pg of total HeLa RNA when used in conjunction with Platinum® Taq DNA Polymerase High Fidelity.

Answer Id: E3215

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215f30d9ddce30cef02c9a0a2f45bad2_FAQ

Must PCR conditions be changed once the original PCR primers have attB sequence added to them?

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Answer

Since the attB sequences are on the 5' end of oligos, they will not anneal to the target template in the first round of PCR. Sometimes the PCR product is more specific with the attB primers, probably due to the longer annealing sequence (all of attB plus gene specific sequence) after the first round of amplification. Generally there is no need to change PCR reaction conditions when primers have the additional attB sequence

Answer Id: E3222

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6b00bdaf7a00bf0e99ab5f0665541997_FAQ

What is the influence of the attB sequence on protein function, solubility, folding, and expression?

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Answer

Destination vectors that contain N-terminal fusion partners will express proteins that contain amino acids contributed from the attB1 site, which is 25 bases long. This means that in addition to any tag (6x His and/or antibody epitope tag) the N-terminus of an expressed protein will contain an additional 9 amino acids from the AttB1 sequence - the typical amino acid sequence is Thr-Ser-Leu-Tyr-Lys-Lys-Ala-Gly-nnn, where nnn will depend on the codon sequence of the insert.

Effects on protein function: A researcher (Simpson et al. EMBO Reports 11(31):287-292, 2000) demonstrated that GFP fusions (N- terminal and C-terminal) localized to the proper intracellular compartment. The expression constructs were generated using Gateway® cloning, so the recombinant protein contained the attB1 or attB2 amino acid sequence. The localization function of the cloned recombinant proteins was preserved.

Effects on expression: We have seen no effect of the attB sites on expression levels in E. coli, insect and mammalian cells. The gus gene was cloned into bacterial expression vectors (for native and N-terminal fusion protein expression) using standard cloning techniques and expressed in bacteria. Gus was also cloned into Gateway® Destination vectors (for native and N-terminal fusion expression) and expressed. When protein expression is compared, there was no difference in the amount of protein produced. This demonstrates that for this particular case the attB sites do not interfere with transcription or translation.

Effects on solubility: A researcher at the NCI has shown that Maltose Binding Protein fusions constructed with Gateway® Cloning were soluble. The fusion proteins expressed had the attB amino acid sequence between the Maltose Binding Protein and the cloned protein. It is possible that some proteins containing the attB sequence could remain insoluble when expressed in E.coli.

Effects on folding: Two Hybrids screens show the same interacters identified with and without the attB sequence. Presumably correct protein folding would be required for protein-protein interactions to take place. It is possible that some proteins containing the attB sequence may not fold correctly.

Answer Id: E3223

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ab8191a69d0225df794d7868ff88a478_FAQ

How large can PCR fragments be and still be cloned into a Gateway® Entry vector?

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Answer

There is no size restriction on the PCR fragments if they are cloned into a pDONR vector. The upper limit for efficient cloning into a TOPO® adapted Gateway® Entry vector is approximately 5 kb. A Gateway® recombination reaction can occur between DNA fragments that are as large as 150 kb.

Answer Id: E3224

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6a32ef26c139750349ac439d4e2b5649_FAQ

What do attL1 and attL2 sites look like after recombination between attB and attP sites?

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Answer

The attP1 sequence (pDONR™) is:
AATAATGATT TTATTTTGAC TGATAGTGAC CTGTTCGTTG CAACAAATTG ATGAGCAATGCTTTTTTAT AATGCCAACT TTGTACAAAA AAGC[TGAACG AGAAACGTAA AATGATATAA ATATCAATAT ATTAAATTAG ATTTTGCATA AAAAACAGACTA CATAATACTG TAAAACACAA CATATCCAGT CACTATGAAT CAACTACTTA GATGGTATTA GTGACCTGTA]

The region within brackets is where the site is "cut" and replaced by the attB1-fragment sequence to make an attL1 site. The sequence GTACAAA is the overlap sequence present in all att1 sites and is always "cut" right before the first G.

The overlap sequence in attP2 sites is CTTGTAC and cut before C. This is attP2:
ACAGGTCACT AATACCATCT AAGTAGTTGA TTCATAGTGA CTGGATATGT TGTGTTTTAC AGTATTATGT AGTCTGTTTT TTATGCAAAA TCTAATTTAA TATATTGATA TTTATATCAT TTTACGTTTC TCGTTCAGCT TTCTTGTACA AAGTTGGCAT TATAAGAAAG CATTGCTTAT AATTTGTTG CAACGAACAG GTCACTATCA GTCAAAATAA AATCATTATT

So, attL1 (Entry Clone) should be:
A ATAATGATTT TATTTTGACT GATAGTGACC TGTTCGTTGC AACAAATTGA TGAGCAATGC TTTTTTATAA TGCCAACT TT G TAC AAA AAA GC[A GGC T]NN NNN

attL2 (Entry Clone) should be:
NNN N[AC C]CA GCT TT CTTGTACA AAGTTGGCAT TATAAGAAAG CATTGCTTAT CAATTTGTTG CAACGAACAG GTCACTATCA GTCAAAATAA AATCATTATT

The sequence in brackets comes from attB, and N is your gene-specific sequence.

Note: When creating an Entry Clone through the BP reaction and a PCR product, the vector backbone is not the same as Gateway® Entry vectors. The backbone in the case of PCR BP cloning is pDONR™201.

Answer Id: E3225

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c3246d8f8b1ce5759a073820536ba7a9_FAQ

Do you have recommended sequencing primers for pDONR™201?

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Answer

We do not offer pre-made primers, but we can recommend the following sequences that can be orders as custom primers for sequencing of pDONR™201:
Forward primer, proximal to attL1: 5'- TCGCGTTAACGCTAGCATGGATCTC
Reverse primer, proximal to attL2: 5'-GTAACATCAGAGATTTTGAGACAC

Answer Id: E3236

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d07bccd23f3a9128e2931d3118ae5a01_FAQ

Do I have to synthesize new attB primers (29 base attB primer + my specific sequence primer) each time I want to make an attB PCR product, or do you have truncated attB primers that work together with adapter attB primers to get a complete attB sequence?

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Answer

We do have an alternative method called the "attB Adapter PCR" Protocol in which you make your gene specific primer with only 12 additional attB bases and use attB universal adapter primers. This protocol allows for shorter primers to amplify attB-PCR products by utilizing four primers instead of the usual two in a PCR reaction. You can find the sequence of these primers in the protocol on page 45 of the "Gateway® Technology with Clonase II" manual.

There is a protocol in which all 4 primers mentioned above are in a single PCR reaction. You can find this protocol at in the following article: Quest vol. 1, Issue 2, 2004. The best ratio of the first gene-specific and the second attB primers was 1:10.

Answer Id: E3237

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40e4ddf8a2fbd57df2589bc11f06e9e2_FAQ

What is the purpose of the Proteinase K step following a Gateway® LR Recombination reaction, and is it critical to the results?

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Answer

When the LR reaction is complete, the reaction is stopped with Proteinase K and transformed into E. coli resulting in an expression clone containing a gene of interest. A typical LR reaction followed by Proteinase K treatment yields about 35,000 to 150,000 colonies per 20ul reaction. Without the Proteinase K treatment, up to a 10 fold reduction in the number of colonies can be observed. Despite this reduction, there are often still enough colonies containing the gene of interest to proceed with your experiment, so the Proteinase K step can be left out after the LR reaction is complete if necessary.

Answer Id: E4230

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1e4c0d9331e8e6a1fbdcb21caf691ebf_FAQ

What is Gateway® Cloning Technology?

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Answer

Gateway® Cloning Technology is an easy-to-use system for cloning and subcloning DNA segments (e.g. genes of interest), facilitating gene functional analysis, protein expression, and the integration of technology platforms. One can also readily clone PCR products into so-called Gateway® "Entry" vectors. To shuttle inserts from one vector to another, the Gateway® Cloning Technology uses bacteriophage lambda-based site-specific recombination. There is no need to use restriction enzymes and ligase to subclone inserts.

One advantage of Gateway® Cloning Technology is that genes present in a single Gateway® Entry vector can be subcloned into multiple different Gateway® Destination vectors. After this 1 hour in vitro subcloning reaction, a high percentage of the colonies obtained carry the desired expression clone. For more details, please see the product manual for cat# 12535029 or cat# 12535037.

Answer Id: E3029

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ad3dd87d7339c6d0528671c7979f0bf5_FAQ

What primer purity should be used for adding attB sites to my PCR product?

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Answer

Standard desalted purity is generally sufficient for creating attB primers. We examined HPLC-purified oligos for Gateway® cloning (about 50bp long) and found only about a 2-fold increase in colony number over standard desalted primers. If too few colonies are obtained, you may try to increase the amount of PCR product used and/or incubate the BP reaction overnight.

Answer Id: E3172

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fc138a83fd2868b7715e394b57dbb0f5_FAQ

What is the smallest fragment that can be used in a Gateway® reaction?

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Answer

The smallest size we have recombined is a 70 bp piece of DNA located between the att sites. Very small pieces are difficult to clone since they negatively influence the topology of the recombination reaction.

Answer Id: E3198

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f8a0862ae4d4cb5227ebf626536c1543_FAQ

Can the attB primers anneal in a non-specific manner?

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Answer

No, attB primers are highly specific under standard PCR conditions. We have amplified from RNA (RT-PCR), cDNA libraries, genomic DNA, and plasmid templates without any specificity problems.

Answer Id: E3199

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920a2bb87d560a097ed05e08770d4ad8_FAQ

Will Gateway® att sites affect the expression of my protein?

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Answer

Expression experiments have shown that the extra amino acids contributed by the attB site to a fusion protein will most likely have no effect on protein expression levels or stability. In addition, they do not appear to have any effect on two-hybrid interactions in yeast. However, as is true with the addition of any extra sequences that result from tags, the possible effects will be protein-dependent.

Answer Id: E3200

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9f3eff742eb70470c411d2279b318f04_FAQ

Are the Gateway® attB1 and attB2 sites the same as the attB site used for recombination into E. coli by bacteriophage lambda?

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Answer

The Gateway® attB sites are derived from the bacteriophage lambda site-specific recombination, but are modified to remove stop codons and reduce secondary structure. The core regions have also been modified for specificity (i.e., attB1 will recombine with attP1 but not with attP2).

Answer Id: E3201

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2e1ceb9dc9a8f7e7dab392a49e44027b_FAQ