Why do I sometimes get low cDNA yield when using SuperScript™ Reverse Transcriptase?

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Answer

Low cDNA yield can result due to several different reasons. Please see a few listed below:

(1) Poor quality mRNA: visualize total RNA on a denaturing gel to verify that the 28S and 18S bands are sharp. OD 260:280 ratio should be 1.7.

(2) Template degraded by RNase contamination: maintain aseptic conditions.

(3) Inhibitors of SuperScript™ II RT may be present: remove inhibitors by ethanol precipitation of the RNA preparation before the first-strand reaction. Include a 70% (v/v) ethanol wash of the RNA pellet. Test for the presence of inhibitors by mixing 1 μg control RNA and comparing yields of first-strand cDNA.

(4) RNA preparation may have coprecipitated with polysaccharides: precipitate RNA with lithium chloride to purify RNA.

(5) mRNA concentrations were overestimated: quantitate the mRNA concentrations by measuring the A260 if possible.

(6) If using 32P-isotope, it may be too old: use isotope less than 2 weeks old.

(7) Not enough enzyme was used: use 200 U SuperScript™ II RT/μg RNA.

(8) SuperScript™ II RT activity was decreased by incorrect reaction temperature: perform the first-strand reaction at a temperature between 37 degrees C and 50 degrees C.

(9) DTT was not added to first-strand reaction.

(10) TCA precipitations were performed incorrectly: adequately dry GF/C filters before immersion into scintillant.

(11) SuperScript™ II RT was improperly stored: store at -20 degrees C. Do not store the enzyme at -70 degrees C.

(12) The reaction volume was too large: the reaction should be done in volumes less than or equal to 50 μL.

Answer Id: E4015

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How often should the sound of the vacuum assist be heard on the 433A?

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Answer

At most, once or twice a day. If more frequent, there may be a gas leak. Nitrogen pressure is used to generate the vacuum, which assists the opening of the valves. If there is no apparent gas leak, then it is possible that a valve has failed and the solvent leakage has damaged the vacuum ballast. Both the vacuum system and the valve block need inspection.

Answer Id: E1315

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Which T4 DNA Ligase protocol do you recommend when ligating an insert containing one cohesive (sticky) end and one blunt end?

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Answer

For cloning an insert with one cohesive end and one blunt end, use the conditions for blunt ends.  The sticky end may ligate quickly, but the blunt end ligation will still be inefficient. You should use the more stringent protocol to optimize the blunt end ligation. This usually means using more enzyme (5 U), a lower reaction temperature (14C) and a longer incubation time (16-24 hours). 

Answer Id: E4268

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I am using the Procise™ System and have increased the final %B in the gradient to separate LYS from LEU, but now all the late PTH amino acid peaks are crushed together. What can I do?

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Answer

The PTH column is worn out; you should replace it.

Answer Id: E1255

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If ligation/transformation reactions did not yield any colonies, or if a high number of background colonies are observed, what control reactions should be used to determine the problem?

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Answer

Several ligation controls may be necessary to identify the source of ligation problems.

Recommendations for problems with no colonies after transformation:
1. Test the transformation efficiency of the competent cells using a supercoiled vector, or the control DNA provided with Invitrogen™ competent cells. Perform a transformation reaction and plate the number of cells that is expected to generate 50-100 colonies per plate, based on the anticipated transformation efficiency of the competent cells. The expected number of colonies should be seen, indicating that the competent cells are transforming with high efficiency. The control DNA provided with Invitrogen™ competent cells is supercoiled monomer; vector DNA preparations that contain other forms will not transform as efficiently. Transformation efficiencies will be up to 10-fold lower for ligated vectors than for intact control DNA.
2. Restriction endonuclease-digested, re-ligated vector. Set up a ligation reaction using the same amount of vector DNA that is used in the experimental ligations and use it to transform competent cells. Re-ligation of vectors with cohesive ends should result in less than or equal to 50% of the number of colonies obtained with supercoiled vector DNA, indicating that the components of the ligation reaction are working; re-ligation of vectors with blunt ends should yield 10% to 20% of the number of colonies obtained with supercoiled vector DNA. This is an appropriate control only with vectors that have been digested with a single restriction endonuclease; double-digested vectors may not re-ligate because the ends are incompatible and the small DNA fragment that is released from between the two sites is sometimes lost during ethanol precipitation of the DNA.

For observation of a high number of background colonies:
1. Restriction endonuclease-digested vector. Perform a transformation with an amount of restriction enzyme-digested vector DNA equivalent to that contained in the fraction of the ligation reaction being used for the experimental transformations. Few or no colonies should be seen, indicating complete restriction endonuclease digestion of the vector. The presence of colonies indicates incomplete digestion of the vector that will cause a background of colonies containing non-recombinant vector in the experimental transformations.
2. Restriction endonuclease-digested, dephosphorylated, re-ligated vector. Set up a ligation reaction using the same amount of vector DNA that is used in the experimental ligations and use it to transform competent cells. Few or no colonies should be observed, indicating complete dephosphorylation of the vector - a dephosphorylated vector should not be re-ligated by T4 DNA ligase.
3.  No DNA transformation control. Perform a mock transformation of competent cells, to which no DNA is added. No colonies should be seen, indicating that the selection antibiotic on the agar plates is potent and that the competent cells are pure.

Answer Id: E4010

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How can peptide synthesis amino acid cartridges leak and spill solvents during their activation and transfer to the RV?

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Answer

If these cartridges are being reused, the NMP can cause them to swell, and they no longer fit or slide well in the guideway. If the guideway or the exterior of the needles have became dirty, this can also lead to misalignment. And if you forgot to remove the metal cap, the needle cannot penetrate the septum - this may cause a spill OR stop the run.

Answer Id: E1316

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How can I improve peak resolution between ASP and DTT or ASN when using the Procise™ System?

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Answer

You can move ASP (and GLU) away from DTT and to later retention times by reducing slightly the pH of Solvent A3. This is best accomplished by adding a small amount of TFA (R3)--about 50 to 100 ul/liter of Solvent A3. In the Procise™ System cLC, when ASP and ASN are too close together, the problem can usually be resolved by replacing the guard column (part no. 401883). Decreasing initial %B in the gradient (e.g., from 10% to 8%) will move both DTT and ASP to later retention times.

Answer Id: E1253

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How can I test for inhibitors in  my ligation reactions?

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Answer

To test for the presence of ligation inhibitors, perform a ligation reaction in which some of the vector or insert DNA is included along with some marker DNA such as lambda DNA/Hind III Fragments. If ligation of the DNA marker fragments occurs alone but is not observed when other DNA is added, then a diffusible inhibitor is present in the vector or insert DNA.

To purify and remove inhibitors, extract the DNA with buffer-saturated phenol, then extract with chloroform:isoamyl alcohol, and precipitate with ammonium acetate and ethanol. Be sure that the DNA is free of phenol and that the phosphate concentration is less than 25 mM and the NaCl concentration is less than 50 mM. Also, be sure that the DNA is free of contaminating DNA that might compete for ligation to the insert or vector (e.g., linker fragments, DNA fragments from which the insert was completely purified).

If restriction endonucleases are present, causing redigestion of ligated products, your ligation will also be inhibited. After digestion of the vector and insert DNA, remove restriction endonucleases by extraction with buffer-saturated phenol, extraction with chloroform:isoamyl alcohol, and ethanol precipitation.

Answer Id: E4012

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What are the recommended conditions for cohesive-end ligations?

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Answer

Generally, ligations are done in a 20 μl volume. Use a total of 10 to 100 ng of DNA per reaction with an insert to vector ratio of 3:1. Add 0.1 units (Weiss) ligase to the reaction. Incubate at room temperature for 30-60 minutes.

Optimal ligation may occur at other ratios (e.g. 1:5, 1:10). If possible, assemble several ligation reactions of varying insert to vector ratios in order to reveal the optimal ligation conditions.

Thermo Fisher Scientific offers T4 DNA ligase at two concentrations: 1 U/μl (15224-017) and 5 U/μl (15224-041). When performing blunt or TA cloning ligations, the higher concentration of ligase is generally preferred since ligating a blunt or single base overhang requires more enzyme.

Answer Id: E2950

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What can cause broad dips or cyclical peaks in the baseline when using the Procise™ System?

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Answer

This can be due to pump irregularities, often caused by worn seals. A more or less regular "sawtooth" pattern is usually indicative of a failed dynamic mixer.

Answer Id: E1251

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Do both my insert and vector need to be phosphorylated for ligation?

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Answer

At least one molecule in a ligase reaction (i.e., insert or vector) must be phosphorylated. Ligation reactions are dependent on the presence of a 5' phosphate on the DNA molecules. The ligation of a dephosphorylated vector with an insert generated from a restriction enzyme digest (phosphorylated) is most routinely performed. Although only one strand of the DNA ligates at a junction point, the molecule can form a stable circle, providing that the insert is large enough for hybridization to maintain the molecule in a circular form.

Answer Id: E4014

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Why doesn't the 433A manual or the "quick start card" mention the need for an extra AA cartridge in the guideway at the start of a sequence?

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Answer

The newest 433A User's Manual does cover this. The barcode reader is one position ahead (left) of the needle position. The extra (empty) is needed to prevent advancement of the first cartridge until after it is read.

Answer Id: E1314

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I want to make peptide amides, but your amide resin has no amino acid attached. Why not? Do I need to do anything special?

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Answer

There is no amino acid attached because one is not needed. The amide linker has a free amine which is protected by an Fmoc group. Upon removal of the Fmoc group, an amide bond may be formed with the incoming activated amino acid. Nothing special needs to be done, although you must tell your synthesizer you are using an amide support and/or the first amino acid is not on the support. Standard cleavage protocols may be used.

Answer Id: E1236

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How can I tell whether or not detergent in a sample can be removed with Prosorb™ Sample Preparation Cartridges?

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Answer

If the detergent identity is known, look up its CMC (critical micellar concentration); a table of these is listed in the Biological Detergents section of the Sigma-Aldrich™ catalog. If you are above the CMC, the detergent forms micelles that cannot be removed by the filtering membrane, so the sample must be diluted prior to application to the Prosorb™ Sample Preparation Cartridges.

Answer Id: E1269

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How can I check that my ligation reaction worked?

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Answer

Ligation reactions are best analyzed by actual transformation of bacteria, since not all of the high molecular weight forms created in a reaction (seen in gel analysis) will transform cells efficiently.

Answer Id: E4009

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