What arabinose should I use for induction of my pBAD expression system?

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Answer

We recommend using L-arabinose to regulate expression of your gene when using the pBAD expression system. In the presence of L-arabinose, expression from pBAD is turned on while the absence of L-arabinose produces very low levels of transcription from pBAD (Lee, 1980 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Lee%2C+1980+pbad]; Lee et al., 1987 [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Lee%2C+1987+arbinose]).

Answer Id: E9712

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What is the purpose of the -35 and -10 consensus region, or sequence, that is found in prokaryotic promoters?

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In prokaryotes, such as E. coli, the promoter consists of two short regulatory sequences located 10 and 35 nucleotides upstream of the gene, respectively. The sequence located at -10 is called the Pribnow box (consensus sequence: TATAAT) and is absolutely essential for the transcription initiation. The sequence at -35 (consensus sequence: TTGACA) facilitates high transcription rate. Both regions are recognized by the sigma subunit of RNA polymerase, and instruct the holoenzyme where to start transcription. Once polymerization begins, the sigma subunit dissociates, and the core enzyme continues to transcribe the DNA template.

Answer Id: E3257

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What competent cells do you recommend I use for expression with my pBAD expression system?

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We recommend using a competent cell strain that is araBADC- and araEFGH+, allowing transportation of L-arabinose, but not metabolizing it. This is important for expression studies, as the level of L-arabinose will be constant inside the cell and will not decrease over time. We offer our TOP10 competent cells, or our LMG194 E. coli strain.

Answer Id: E9716

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How does the regulation of the araBAD (pBAD) promoter work?

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The araBAD promoter (pBAD) used to control expression of T7 RNA polymerase in BL21-AI™ is both positively and negatively regulated by the product of the araC gene (Ogden et al., 1980; Schleif, 1992). AraC is a transcriptional regulator that forms a complex with L-arabinose. In the absence of L-arabinose, the AraC dimer contacts the O2 and I1 half sites of the araBAD operon, forming a 210 bp DNA loop (see figure below). For maximum transcriptional activation, two events are required.

- L-arabinose binds to AraC and causes the protein to release the O2 site and bind the I2 site that is adjacent to the I1 site. This releases the DNA loop and allows transcription to begin.
- The cAMP activator protein (CAP)-cAMP complex binds to the DNA and stimulates binding of AraC to I1 and I2.

Please note, basal expression levels can be repressed by introducing glucose to the growth medium. Glucose acts by lowering cAMP levels, which in turn decreases the binding of CAP. As cAMP levels are lowered, transcriptional activation is decreased.

Answer Id: E9713

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What is the purpose of the RBS sequence found in prokaryotic vectors?

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The RBS, which stands for Ribosomal Binding Site, is required for translational initiation in E. coli, and consists primarily of purines. The consensus core region, or Shine-Dalgarno sequence (AGGAGG) is frequently located 8-12 base pairs upstream of the initiating codon AUG. This sequence forms base pairs with a complementary sequence located at the 3' end of the 16S rRNA molecule of the ribosome and assists in the recognition of the proper AUG of translation initiation.

Answer Id: E3258

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Should I use TOP10 cells or the LMG194 E. coli strain you offer for expression with my pBAD system?

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Answer

Top10

Advantages:
- Saves time, can go directly from cloning to expression.
- The glycerol stock is more stable because these strains are endA- and recA-.

Disdvantages:
- This strain is not protease-deficient. Therefore, the protein may be degraded.

LMG194

Advantages:
- Grows well in minimal media, except M9.
-Have to transform the plasmid into the cells just for expression.
-RM medium with glucose to ensure low basal level of protein.

Disadvantages:
- Not protease-deficient. Therefore, the protein may be degraded.
- The glycerol stock may not be stable because this cell strain is not recA- or endA-.

Answer Id: E9717

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What media should be used to grow the LMG194 strain? Will LMG194 grow in M9 alone?

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Answer

LMG194 will grow in LB and RM medium that contains M9 salts. LMG194 will not grow in M9 salts alone. RM medium is used to ensure low basal expression levels from the pBAD promoter.

Answer Id: E3253

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Do you have a list of the cap colors for the pBAD vectors?

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Answer

Here are the cap colors:

- pBAD/His A: Red

- pBAD/His B: Orange

- pBAD/His C: Yellow

- pBAD/His LacZ: Green

- pBad/gIII A: Yellow

- pBad/gIII B: Green

- pBad/gIII C: Blue

- pBAD/gIII/calmodulin: Purple

Answer Id: E9714

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What protein yields should I expect to get with the pRSET expression vectors?

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Answer

We've expressed CAT and Beta-Gal in volumes from 2 ml to 50 ml and get about 20-50 µg protein/ml of culture. Protein yield is dependent on the type of protein being expressed and the culturing conditions.

Answer Id: E3259

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How much L-arabinose should I use to induce expression with the pBAD expression system?

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Answer

While the amount of L-arabinose can vary depending on your expression experiment, we suggest performing a pilot expression experiment with varying amounts of L-arabinose from 0.00002% to 0.2%.

Answer Id: E9718

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What strains of E. coli should be used with the pBAD inducible promoter system?

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Answer

Any E. coli strain that is araBADC- and araEFGH+ is suitable for use with the pBAD promoter. Suitable strains that can be used include TOP10, TOP10F', and DH10B. Cells that are not araBADC- and therefore cannot be used with pBAD constructs, include DH5alpha, OmniMAX, Mach1, BL21(DE3) and INValphaF'.

Answer Id: E3254

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Which form of arabinose should be used for induction in the pBAD Expression System, L- or D-arabinose?

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Answer

The chirality of arabinose used for induction is very important. L-arabinose works great, but D-arabinose doesn't induce at all. L-arabinose is available from Sigma (catalog# A3256).

Answer Id: E3248

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What are the benefits of the pBAD expression system?

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Answer

The pBAD expression system allows tightly controlled, titratable expression of your protein through the regulation of specific carbon sources such as glucose, glycerol, and arabinose. pBAD is ideal for expressing toxic proteins and optimizing protein solubility in E. coli. The system helps to produce proteins at a level just below the threshold at which they become insoluble. The regulatory elements of the E. coli arabinose operon are used in the pBAD vectors to precisely modulate heterologous expression levels, allowing optimization of the yields of the protein of interest. The regulatory protein, AraC, is provided on the pBAD vector backbone, allowing for regulation of pBAD.

Answer Id: E9711

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Has Invitrogen™ mapped the exact transcriptional start site of the pBAD promoter?

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Answer

No, the exact start site of the pBAD promoter has not been determined experimentally.

Answer Id: E3256

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Can you tell me the sequence of primers that can be used in pBAD vectors to sequence my gene of interest?

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Answer

The pBAD vectors contain a forward and reverse pBAD primer flanking the gene of interest. The sequences are as follows:

pBAD forward primer: 5'-ATGCCATAGCATTTTTATCC-3'

pBAD reverse primer: 5'-GATTTAATCTGTATCAGG-3'

Answer Id: E9715

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