The cytoplasm consists of cytosol and organelles. Cytosol contains water, salts, and organic molecules such as cytoskeleton filaments and ribosomes. All organelles in the cell are suspended in the cytoplasm with cytosol surrounding them. The cytoplasm is 70% of a cell’s volume and is where most cellular activities occur.

Cytoplasm marker antibodies detect proteins specific to the cytoplasm and can aid in the study of the morphology and functions of the cytoplasm. Cytoplasm marker antibodies can also help elucidate the roles a protein may play in a number of tasks that are centered in or influenced by the cytoplasm.

Each Invitrogen cytoplasm marker antibody is validated for use in applications such as ELISA, western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoprecipitation.

Cytoplasm marker antibody targets

  • ACTB
  • AHR
  • CALR
  • DDIT3
  • DLg4
  • ESR1
  • GAPDH
  • HIF1A
  • HSPA1A
  • NOS2
  • NOS3T
  • NR3C1
  • MAPT
  • RYR1

Featured product data

Immunofluorescent analysis of HIF-1 alpha using an antibody recognizing HIF-1 alpha shows staining in U251 cells. HIF-1 alpha (green), F-actin staining with Phalloidin (red) and nuclei with DAPI (blue) is shown. Cells were grown on chamber slides and fixed with formaldehyde prior to staining. Cells were probed without (negative control) or with HIF-1 alpha monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. MA1-516) at a dilution of 1:20 overnight at 4°C, washed with PBS and incubated with a DyLight™ 488−conjugated secondary antibody (Cat. No. 35552 for GAR; Cat. No. 35503 for GAM). Images were taken at 60x magnification.


Immunohistochemistry performed on normal deparaffinized human heart tissue. To expose target proteins, heat-induced antigen retrieval was performed using 10 mM sodium citrate (pH 6.0) buffer, microwaved for 8–15 minutes. Following antigen retrieval, tissues were blocked in 3% BSA-PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature. Tissues were then probed at a dilution of 1:200 with a rabbit polyclonal antibody recognizing iNOS (Cat. No. PA1-036) or without primary antibody (negative control) overnight at 4°C in a humidified chamber. Tissues were washed extensively with PBST and endogenous peroxidase activity was quenched with a peroxidase suppressor. Detection was performed using a biotin-conjugated secondary antibody and SA-HRP, followed by colorimetric detection using DAB. Tissues were counterstained with hematoxylin and prepped for mounting.


Flow cytometry analysis of PSD95 in U87-MG cells compared to an isotype control (blue). Cells were harvested, adjusted to a concentration of 1–5 x 106 cells/mL, fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde and washed with PBS. Cells were blocked with a 2% solution of BSA-PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature and incubated with a PSD95 monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. MA1-046) at a dilution of 2 µg/test for 60 minutes at room temperature. Cells were then incubated for 40 minutes at room temperature in the dark using a DyLight™ 488−conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) secondary antibody (Cat. No. 35552) and resuspended in PBS for FACS analysis.

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Annotated product references

Cat. No. MA1-516 was used in immunohistochemistry and western blot to study the role of HIF-1 alpha in the upregulation of HIF-1 beta in hypoxic human melanoma cells. Mandl M, Kapeller B, Lieber R et al. (2013) Hypoxia-inducible factor-1β (HIF-1β) is upregulated in a HIF-1α-dependent manner in 518A2 human melanoma cells under hypoxic conditions. Biochem Biophys Res Communs 434:166–172.

Cat. No. MA1-516 was used in western blot to study the role of HIF-1 alpha and VEGF in the neuroprotective effects of soy following acute stroke. Ma Y, Lovekamp-Swan T, Bekele W et al. (2013) Hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are targets of dietary soy during acute stroke in female rats. Endocrinology 154:1589–1597.

Cat. No. PA1-036 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the protective effect of cannabidiol against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Fouad AA, Al-Mulhim AS, Jresat I (2012) Cannabidiol treatment ameliorates ischemia/reperfusion renal injury in rats. Life Sci 91:284–292.

Cat. No. PA1-036 was used in western blot to study the role of the expression profile of iNOS and arginase in rat macrophages in their resistance to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Li Z, Zhao ZJ, Zhu XQ et al. (2012) Differences in iNOS and arginase expression and activity in the macrophages of rats are responsible for the resistance against T. gondii infection. PLoS One 7:e35834.

Cat. No. MA1-046 was used in western blot to characterize a novel hypomorphic mutation on chromosome 10 that affects the expression of Ostm1. Bosman EA, Estabel J, Ismail O et al. (2013) Omi, a recessive mutation on chromosome 10, is a novel allele of Ostm1. Mamm Genome 24: 44–53.

Cat. No. MA1-046 was used in immunohistochemistry to study filamin A and its anatomical and subcellular localization in the brain of mature rats. Noam Y, Phan L, McClelland S et al. (2012) Distinct regional and subcellular localization of the actin-binding protein filamin A in the mature rat brain. J Comp Neurol 520: 3013–3034.