Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles enclosed by a dual membrane. The outer membrane is relatively smooth; however, the inner membrane is quite convoluted forming folds (cristae) that significantly increase the surface area of the inner membrane. These cristae are the site of ATP synthesis in which the energy from glucose is converted to ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. This process provides the cell’s principal energy source, giving it the power to carry out all of its varied functions. Mitochondria also contain their own ribosomes and DNA. While mitochondria primarily provide energy, they are also involved in cellular tasks like signaling, differentiation, apoptosis, and the control of the cell cycle and growth.
Mitochondrial Marker Antibodies
Mitochondrial marker antibodies detect proteins specific to the mitochondria and can aid in the study of the morphology and dynamics of the mitochondria. Mitochondrial marker antibodies can also help elucidate the role or roles a protein may play in a number of tasks that are centered in or influenced by the mitochondria.
Each Invitrogen mitochondrial marker antibody is validated for use in applications such as ELISA, western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoprecipitation.
Mitochondrial marker antibody targets
Featured product data
Immunofluorescent analysis of HIF-1 alpha using HIF-1 alpha Monoclonal Antibody (mgc3) (Cat. No. MA1-516) shows staining in U251 cells. HIF-1 alpha (green), F-Actin staining with Phalloidin (red) and nuclei with DAPI (blue) is shown. Cells were grown on chamber slides and fixed with formaldehyde prior to staining. Cells were probed without (control) or with an antibody recognizing HIF-1 alpha (Cat. No. MA1-516 ) at a dilution of 1:20 overnight at 4°C, washed with PBS and incubated with a DyLight-488 conjugated secondary antibody (Cat. No. 35552 for GAR, Cat. No. 35503 for GAM). Images were taken at 60X magnification.
Immunohistochemistry analysis of Tau showing staining in the cytoplasm of paraffin-embedded human astroglioma (right) compared to a negative control without primary antibody (left). To expose target proteins, antigen retrieval was performed using 10mM sodium citrate (pH 6.0), microwaved for 8-15 minutes. Following antigen retrieval, tissues were blocked in 3% H2O2-methanol for 15 minutes at room temperature, washed with ddH2O and PBS, and then probed with Tau monoclonal antibody (TAU-5) (Cat. No. AHB0042) diluted in 3% BSA-PBS at a dilution of 1:50 overnight at 4°C in a humidified chamber. Tissues were washed extensively in PBST and detection was performed using an HRP-conjugated secondary antibody followed by colorimetric detection using a DAB kit. Tissues were counterstained with hematoxylin and dehydrated with ethanol and xylene to prep for mounting.
Flow cytometry analysis of Glucocorticoid Receptor in HeLa cells (green) compared to an isotype control (blue). Cells were harvested, adjusted to a concentration of 1-5x10^6 cells/mL, fixed with 2% paraformaldehyde and washed with PBS. Cells were penetrated by dropping the supernatant, adding 90% methanol and incubated for 10 minutes at room temperature. Follwing penetration, cells were blocked with a 2% solution of BSA-PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature and incubated with Glucocorticoid Receptor monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. MA1-510) at a dilution of 1 µg/test for 60 minutes at room temperature. Cells were then incubated for 40 minutes at room temperature in the dark using a Dylight 488-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) secondary antibody and re-suspended in PBS for FACS analysis.
Annotated product references
MA1-516 was used in immunohistochemistry and western blot to study the role of HIF-1 alpha in the upregulation of HIF-1 beta in hypoxic human melanoma cells. Mandl M, Kapeller B, Lieber R et al. (2013) Hypoxia-inducible factor 1β (HIF-1β) is upregulated in a HIF-1α-dependent manner in 518A2 human melanoma cells under hypoxic conditions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 434:166−172.
MA1-516 was used in western blot to study the role of HIF-1 alpha and VEGF in the neuroprotective effects of soy following acute stroke. Ma Y, Lovekamp-Swan T, Bekele W et al. (2013) Hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor are targets of dietary soy during acute stroke in female rats. Endocrinology 154:1589−1597.
MA1-510 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the effect of corticosterone administration on glucocorticoid receptor expression and fear responses in high- and low-anxiety rats. Wislowska-Stanek A, Lehner M, Skórzewska A, et al. (2013) Corticosterone modulates fear responses and the expression of glucocorticoid receptors in the brain of high-anxiety rats. Neurosci Lett 533:17−22.
MA1-510 was used in ChIP assay to study the inhibition of glucocorticoid receptor transactivation by PA1. Zhang Z, Sun Y, Cho YW et al. (2013) PA1 protein, a new competitive decelerator acting at more than one step to impede glucocorticoid receptor-mediated transactivation. JBiol Chem 288:42−58.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.