The nucleus is clearly apparent in all eukaryotic cells. It is bound by a double membrane and contains most of the cell’s genetic material, which consists of DNA molecules complexed with proteins to form chromosomes. The nucleus functions to maintain the genes within these chromosomes and to regulate their expression, thereby controlling the activities of the cell.
Nuclear pores provide a channel across the otherwise impermeable nuclear membrane, through which small molecules and ions can freely move, and large molecules can be actively transported by carrier proteins. While the nucleus does not contain any membrane bound sub compartments, it does include a number of unique bodies, the nucleolus being the most easily identified.
The nucleolus is the site of ribosomal RNA transcription and ribosome assembly. Nuclear organizing regions (NORs), which are made up of tandem repeats of rRNA genes, form the foundation of the nucleolar structure.
Chromatin, which consists of DNA, RNA, and protein, is also found in the nucleus and is organized into chromosomes. Centromeres serve to link chromosome pairs, and the centromere is the site of spindle fiber attachment via kinetochores during mitosis.
Nuclear marker antibodies detect proteins specific to the nucleus and can aid in the study of the morphology and dynamics of the nucleus and its structures. Nuclear marker antibodies also provide a way for monitoring nuclear changes throughout cellular processes.
Each Invitrogen nuclear marker antibody is validated for use in applications such as ELISA, western blot, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry, and immunoprecipitation.