Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin consisting of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. Biotin is essential for all organisms, as it is involved in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, the metabolism of fats and amino acids, the citric acid cycle, the transfer of carbon dioxide, and gluconeogenesis. Intestinal bacteria in humans generally produce biotin in excess of the human host’s daily requirements, making biotin deficiency rare. However, in its rare occurrences, biotin deficiency is associated with dermatitis, hair loss, nausea, muscle pain, depression, anemia, and anorexia.

Biotin is also used extensively in protein labeling (biotinylation) because of its small size, stability, and interaction with avidin or streptavidin. The avidin-biotin complex is the strongest known noncovalent interaction between a protein and ligand (Kd=10-15 M). The bond formation between biotin and avidin is very rapid, and once formed, it is unaffected by extremes of pH, temperature, organic solvents, and other denaturing agents. These characteristics of the avidin-biotin complex, which also apply to streptavidin and NeutrAvidin Protein, are useful for purifying or detecting proteins conjugated to either component of the interaction.

Quality Invitrogen biotin antibodies are available for a variety of research needs. We also offer enzyme-conjugated versions for your added convenience. 


Featured product data

Immunohistochemical analysis of biotin using a biotin polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA1-30595).


Annotated product references

MA5-11251 was used in western blotting to investigate a rapid method for generating bi-specific antibodies. Carlring J, De Leenheer E, Heath AW (2011) A novel redox method for rapid production of functional bi-specific antibodies for use in early pilot studies. PLoS One 6: e22533.

MA5-11251 was used in flow cytometry and western blotting to perform high-throughput antibody screening using detergent-solubilized and biotinylated whole cell lysates as the antigen source. Cho YK, Shusta EV (2010) Antibody library screens using detergent-solubilized mammalian cell lysates as antigen sources. Protein Eng Des Sel 23: 567–577.

MA5-11251 was used in western blotting to develop a novel yeast display immunoprecipitation method for antigen isolation and characterization. Cho YK, Chen I, Wei X et al. (2009) A yeast display immunoprecipitation method for efficient isolation and characterization of antigens. J Immunol Methods 341: 117–126.


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