Biotin is a water-soluble B vitamin consisting of a ureido ring fused with a tetrahydrothiophene ring. Biotin is essential for all organisms, as it is involved in cell growth, the production of fatty acids, the metabolism of fats and amino acids, the citric acid cycle, the transfer of carbon dioxide, and gluconeogenesis. Intestinal bacteria in humans generally produce biotin in excess of the human host’s daily requirements, making biotin deficiency rare. However, in its rare occurrences, biotin deficiency is associated with dermatitis, hair loss, nausea, muscle pain, depression, anemia, and anorexia.
Biotin is also used extensively in protein labeling (biotinylation) because of its small size, stability, and interaction with avidin or streptavidin. The avidin-biotin complex is the strongest known noncovalent interaction between a protein and ligand (Kd=10-15 M). The bond formation between biotin and avidin is very rapid, and once formed, it is unaffected by extremes of pH, temperature, organic solvents, and other denaturing agents. These characteristics of the avidin-biotin complex, which also apply to streptavidin and NeutrAvidin Protein, are useful for purifying or detecting proteins conjugated to either component of the interaction.
Quality Invitrogen biotin antibodies are available for a variety of research needs. We also offer enzyme-conjugated versions for your added convenience.