Antibodies for infectious disease research

Infectious diseases are illnesses resulting from the invasion of pathogenic organisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or other parasites. Through a series of immune responses, the immune system makes a large quantity of antibodies, attacks invaders, eliminates foreign substances from the body, and protects people from infections. When immunity is impaired, uncontrolled infection leads to disease. Infectious diseases have plagued human populations throughout history and continue to destroy millions of lives every year.

Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a wide range of products, including antibodies, proteins, assays, and more, designed for studying infectious diseases. Our experienced custom service team can also help save you time by developing an antibody to meet your research specifications.

Already know the target of your infectious disease research?

Find antibodies of interest using the search tool below. Then filter the results by target or host species, monoclonal or polyclonal antibody type, and other criteria.

Primary Antibodies reference component

Viral infections and research antibodies for detection

All viruses are capsules with a core of genetic material, either RNA or DNA. Viruses can't survive without a live host, which can be an animal, plant, or bacterium. When a virus infects a host, it invades and exploits the host cells to produce new viruses. Most viruses cause infectious diseases and present cell-, tissue-, or organ-specific viral infections. For example, the hepatitis virus specifically attacks liver cells. Viral infectious diseases can range from the common cold, flu, and warts to severe illnesses such as HIV/AIDS, yellow fever, hemorrhagic fever, and Zika.

Antibodies for specific viral target detection

Figure. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded human infected appendix stained using an adenovirus Type 2/5 monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. MA5-11349), peroxidase conjugate, and DAB substrate. Note the nuclear and cytoplasmic staining of infected epithelial cells.

Virus name (Infection/disease) Antibodies Target aliases
Adenovirus (Adenovirus infection) Adenovirus Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 2; Adeno Virus 5; AdV; AdV-2; AdV-5; HADV; HADV-2; HADV-5
Adenovirus Hexon Adeno Virus; AdV; HADV; HAdVC_gp08
Adenovirus Type 1 Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 1; AdV; AdV-1; HADV; HADV-1
Adenovirus Type 2 Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 2; AdV; AdV-2; HADV; HADV-2
Adenovirus Type 2 E1A Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 2; AdV; AdV-2; HADV; HADV-2
Adenovirus Type 2 Fiber Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 2; AdV; AdV-2; HADV; HADV-2
Adenovirus Type 2 Hexon Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 2; AdV; AdV-2; HADV; HADV-2
Adenovirus Type 2/5 Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 2; Adeno Virus 5; AdV; AdV-2; AdV-5; HADV; HADV-2; HADV-5
Adenovirus Type 3 Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 3; AdV; AdV-3; HADV; HADV-3
Adenovirus Type 5 Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 5; AdV; AdV-5; HADV; HADV-5
Adenovirus Type 5 E1A Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 5; AdV; AdV-5; HADV; HADV-5
Adenovirus Type 5 Hexon Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 5; AdV; AdV-5; HADV; HADV-5
Adenovirus Type 7 Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 7; AdV; AdV-7; HADV; HADV-7
Bovine Papillomavirus (Common in cattle) Bovine Papilloma Virus BPV
Bovine Papilloma Virus Type 1 E2 BPV; BPV Protein E2; BPV-1; BPV1-E2
Canine Parvovirus (Mainly affecting dogs) Canine Parvovirus CPV
Cytomegalovirus (CMV infection) Cytomegalovirus 65 kda Late Antigen CMV; HHV5gp078
Cytomegalovirus 45 kda Late Antigen CMV
Cytomegalovirus gB Late Antigen CMV
Cytomegalovirus gH Late Antigen CMV; HHV5gp070
Cytomegalovirus IE 70 kDa Antigen CMV
Cytomegalovirus IE 72 kDa Antigen CMV
Cytomegalovirus IE Early Antigen CMV
Cytomegalovirus pp65 CMV; HHV5gp078
Cytomegalovirus UL97 CMV
Dengue Virus (Dengue fever) Dengue Virus Type 1-4 Dengue pan
Dengue Virus Type 1-4 Envelope Dengue 2 envelope; Dengue envelope; Dengue pan; Dengue Virus 2 Envelope
Dengue Virus Type 1-4 NS1 Dengue NS1; Dengue pan
Dengue Virus Type 2 Dengue Virus Type 2
Dengue Virus Type 2 Capsid capsid protein; Dengue capsid
Dengue Virus Type 2 Envelope Dengue Virus Type 2 Envelope
Dengue Virus Type 2 NS1 Dengue NS1; NS1; NS1 protein
Dengue Virus Type 2 NS2B Dengue NS2; NS2; NS2 protein
Dengue Virus Type 2 NS3 Dengue NS3; NS3; NS3 protein
Dengue Virus Type 2 NS4A Dengue NS4; NS4; NS4 protein
Dengue Virus Type 2 NS4B Dengue NS4; NS4; NS4 protein
Dengue Virus Type 2 NS5 Dengue NS5; NS5; NS5 protein
Dengue Virus Type 2 PrM Dengue 2 prm; Dengue prm; Dengue Virus 2 Prm; PrM protein
Ebola Virus (Ebola hemorrhagic fever) Ebola Virus Dengue Virus Type 2 PrM
Epstein Barr Virus (Infectious mononucleosis) Epstein Barr Virus EBV
Epstein Barr Virus Bam H1 Z Early Antigen EBV; EBV EA; EBV early
Epstein Barr Virus Bcl-2 EBV
Epstein Barr Virus Ea-D EBV; EBV EA; EBV EAD; EBV early
Epstein Barr Virus Early Antigen EBV; EBV EA; EBV early
Epstein Barr Virus Early Antigen p55.50 EBV; EBV EA; EBV early
Epstein Barr Virus gp250/350 EBV gp250; EBV gp350
Epstein Barr Virus LMP EBV; EBV Latent membrane protein
Epstein Barr Virus LMP2A EBV; EBV Latent membrane protein
Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 EBNA-1; EBV nuclear antigen 1
Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3A EBNA-3A; EBV nuclear antigen 1
Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3B EBNA-3B; EBV nuclear antigen 1
Epstein Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3C EBNA-3C; EBV nuclear antigen 1
Epstein Barr Virus p18 EBV p18
Epstein Barr Virus VCA EBV; EBV VCA
Feline Leukemia Virus (Infecting cats) Feline Leukemia Virus FLV
Feline Leukemia Virus gp70 FLV
Feline Leukemia Virus P15E FLV
Feline Leukemia Virus p27 FLV
Hepatitis A virus (Hepatitis A ) Hepatitis A Virus Virions HAVgp1; HepA
Hepatitis A Virus Vp3 HAVgp1; HepA
Hepatitis B virus (Hepatitis B) Hepatitis B Small S Protein Hepatitis B Small S Protein
Hepatitis B Virus Core Antigen Hepatitis B virus nucleocapsid particles; HepB
Hepatitis B Virus E HBVgp4; HepB
Hepatitis B Virus preS2 HBVgp4; HepB
Hepatitis B Virus Surface HBsAg; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen; HepB; HepB surface antigen
Hepatitis B Virus Surface Ad/Ay HBsAg; HBVgp2; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen; HepB; HepB ad; HepB ay; HepB surface antigen
Hepatitis B Virus Surface Ayw HBsAg; HBVgp2; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen; HepB; HepB ayw; HepB surface antigen
Hepatitis B Virus Surface Ayw/Adw HBsAg; HBVgp2; Hepatitis B Surface Antigen; HepB; HepB adw; HepB ayw; HepB surface antigen
Hepatitis B Virus X HBV x Core Protein; HBVgp3; HepB X
Hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C) Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen HCV core; HepC; HepC core
Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen Envelope HCV core; HCV envelope; HepC; HepC core; HepC envelope
Hepatitis C Virus Core Antigen NS3/NS4 HCV core; HepC; HepC core
Hepatitis C Virus E1 HCV E1; HCV genotype 2A; HCV2a Envelope glycoprotein E1; HepC
Hepatitis C Virus NS3 HCV; HCV NS3; HepC; HepC NS3
Hepatitis C Virus NS4 HCV; HCV NS4; HepC; HepC NS4
Hepatitis C Virus NS4a HCV; HCV NS4; HepC; HepC NS4
Hepatitis C Virus NS4b HCV; HCV NS4; HepC; HepC NS5
Hepatitis C Virus NS5 HCV; HCV NS5; HepC; HepC NS5; NICE-3
Hepatitis C Virus NS5a HCV; HCV NS5; HepC; HepC NS5; NICE-3
Hepatitis C Virus NS5b HCV; HCV NS5; HepC; HepC NS5; NICE-3
Hepatitis E virus (Hepatitis E) Hepatitis E Virus HepE
Hepatitis G virus (Hepatitis G) Hepatitis G Virus GB Virus Type C; GB Virus Type C E2; GBC glycoprotein E2; GBV-C envelope glycoprotein E2; HepG
Hepatitis G Virus E2 GB Virus Type C; GB Virus Type C E2; GBC glycoprotein E2; GBV-C envelope glycoprotein E2; HepG
Herpes simplex virus (Herpes simplex) Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1/2 Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex II; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HHV-2; HSV; HSV 1/2; HSV I/II; HSV Type 1; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV1; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1/2 gB Glycoprotein B; Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex II; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HHV-2; HSV; HSV 1/2; HSV I/II; HSV Type 1; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV1; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1/2 gD Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex II; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HHV-2; HSV; HSV 1/2; HSV I/II; HSV Type 1; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV1; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1/2 Nuclear Antigen Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex II; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HHV-2; HSV; HSV 1/2; HSV 
HSV Type 1 Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HSV; HSV Type 1; HSV1
HSV Type 1 gC Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HSV; HSV Type 1; HSV1
HSV Type 1 gD Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HSV; HSV Type 1; HSV1
HSV Type 1 ICP8 Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HSV; HSV Type 1; HSV1
HSV Type 1 VP21/VP22a Herpes Simplex 1; Herpes Simplex I; Herpes Simplex Type 1; HHV; HSV; HSV Type 1; HSV1
HSV Type 2 Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex II; HHV-2; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
HSV Type 2 gB Glycoprotein B; Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex II; HHV-2; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
HSV Type 2 gD Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex II; HHV-2; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
HSV Type 2 gE Glycoprotein E; Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex II; HHV-2; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
HSV Type 2 gG Glycoprotein G; Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex II; HHV-2; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
HSV Type 2 NP Herpes Simplex 2; Herpes Simplex II; HHV-2; HSV Type 2; HSV Type II; HSV-2; HSV2; Human herpes virus 2
HSV Type 6 90kDa Glycoprotein HHV-6; HHV-6 gp
HSV Type 6 Capsid HHV-6
HSV Type 6 Early Antigen HHV-6; HHV-6 EA
HSV Type 6 Envelope HHV-6; HHV-6 Envelope
HSV Type 6 U69 GCVK; HHV6Z; Human herpesvirus 6B U69
HSV Type 7 U12 HHV-7; Human herpesvirus 7; U12
HSV Type 8 HHV-8
HIV (AIDS) HIV1 Gag Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 gp120 HIV Glycoprotein 120; HIV-1 Glycoprotein 120; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 gp41 HIV Glycoprotein 41; HIV-1 Glycoprotein 41; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 HTLV-3 Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 Integrase Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 nef Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 p15 HIV1gp1; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 p17 Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 p24 HIV p24; HIV1gp1; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 p55 HIV p55; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 Protease HIV protease; HIV1gp1; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 Rev Group M HIV group M; HIV-1 Rev region 33-48; Human immunodeficiency virus; Regulator of Virion
HIV1 Reverse Transcriptase HIV RT; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 Tat BH10; HIV-1 Tat region 6 -12; Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV1 Vif Human immunodeficiency virus; viral infectivity factor; virion infectivity factor
HIV1 Virions Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV2 gp36 Human immunodeficiency virus
HIV2 Nef F-protein; HIV2 nef protein; Human immunodeficiency virus 2 nef; Nefprotein; Negative factor
Influenza A (Avian Influenza) Avian Influenza H5N1 Neuraminidase Avian H5N1; H5N1; Influenza A Neuraminidase
Avian Influenza H5N3 HA Avian H5N3; H5N3; Influenza A Hemagglutinin
Avian Influenza HA Avian Hemagglutinin; Influenza A Hemagglutinin
Avian Influenza HA Type 2 Avian Hemagglutinin 2; Influenza A Hemagglutinin
Avian Influenza HA Type 3 Avian Hemagglutinin 3; Influenza A Hemagglutinin
Influenza A (Influenza A) Influenza A H1N1 H1N1; Influenza H1N1
Influenza A H1N1 HA H1N1 HA; H1N1 hemagglutinin; Influenza H1N1
Influenza A H1N1 NA H1N1 NA; H1N1 Nuclear antigen; Influenza H1N1; Influenza Nuclear Antigen
Influenza A H1N1 NS H1N1; H1N1 NS; Influenza H1N1
Influenza A H1N1 Virions H1N1; H1N1 virions; Influenza H1N1
Influenza A H3N2 H3N2; Influenza H3N2
Influenza A H3N2 HA H3N2 HA; H3N2 hemagglutinin; Influenza H3N2
Influenza A H3N2 M1 H3N2; H3N2 M1; H3N2 Matrix protein; Influenza H3N2
Influenza A H3N2 Virions H3N2; H3N2 virions; Influenza H3N2
Influenza A H5 Influenza H5; Influenza NP-A
Influenza A H6N1 HA H6N1 HA; H6N1 hemagglutinin; Influenza H6N1
Influenza A H6N1 MP1 H6N1 Major Protein 1; H6N1 MP1; Influenza H6N1
Influenza A H6N1 NP H6N1 NP; H6N1 Nuclear Protein; Influenza H6N1
Influenza A H7N7 HA H7N7 HA; H7N7 hemagglutinin; Influenza H7N7
Influenza A H9N2 HA H9N2 HA; H9N2 hemagglutinin; Influenza H9N2
Influenza A HA H1N1 HA; H1N1 hemagglutinin; Influenza H1N1
Influenza A M1 Influenza A M1
Influenza A M2 Influenza M2; Influenza Matrix protein M2
Influenza A NP Influenza nucleoprotein
Influenza A NS1 Influenza NS1
Influenza A NS2 Influenza NS2
Influenza A PA Influenza A Protective Antigen; Influenza PA; Influenza Protective Antigen
Influenza A PB1 Influenza PB1
Influenza A PB2 Influenza PB2
Influenza B (Human Influenza) Influenza B HA Influenza B hemagglutinin; Influenza HA; Influenza hemagglutinin
Influenza B NA Influenza B NA
Influenza B NP Influenza B Nuclear Protein; Influenza NP; Influenza Nuclear Protein
Influenza B Virions Influenza Virions
Marburg Virus (Marburg virus disease) Marburg Virus Marburg Virus
Marburg Virus 30 kDa Marburg Virus 30 kDa
ParaInfluenza Virus (Parainfluenza) ParaInfluenza Virus Type 1 hPIV-1; Parainfluenza Virus Type 1; PIV-1
ParaInfluenza Virus Type 1 Fusion Protein hPIV-1; hPIV-1 Fusion protein; Parainfluenza Virus Type 1; PIV-1; PIV-1 Fusion protein
ParaInfluenza Virus Type 2 hPIV-2; Parainfluenza Virus Type 2; PIV-2
ParaInfluenza Virus Type 2 HA hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase; hPIV-2; HPIV2gp7; Human parainfluenza virus type 2; PIV-2 hemagglutinin; PIV2 HA
ParaInfluenza Virus Type 2/3 hPIV-2; Parainfluenza Virus Type 2; Parainfluenza Virus Type 3; PIV-2; PIV-3
ParaInfluenza Virus Type 3 hPIV-3; Parainfluenza Virus Type 3; PIV-3
ParaInfluenza Virus Type 3 HA hPIV-3; HPIV3gp7; Parainfluenza Virus Type 3; PIV-3; PIV-3 hemagglutinin; PIV-3 hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase
Poliovirus (Poliomyelitis) Poliovirus Type 1 Poliovirus Type 1
Poliovirus Type 1-3 PV-2; PV-3
Poliovirus Type 2 PV-2
Rabies Virus (Rabies) Rabies Virus Rabies Virus
Rabies Virus Glycoprotein Rabies Virus Glycoprotein
Rotavirus (Rotavirus disease) Rotavirus Reoviridae; Rotavirus gastroenteritis
Rotavirus A VP6 Reoviridae; Rotavirus gastroenteritis
Rotavirus Capsid Reoviridae; Rotavirus gastroenteritis
Rotavirus NCDV Nebraska calf diarrhea virus; Reoviridae; Rotavirus gastroenteritis
Respiratory Syncytial Virus (Lung and respiratory tract infection) RSV human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV
RSV Fusion Protein human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV; RSV Fusion protein; Rsvgp08
RSV Glycoprotein G human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV; RSV Glycoprotein G
RSV M2 human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV; RSV M2; RSV Matrix protein 2
RSV NP human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV; RSV NP; RSV Nuclear Protein
RSV strain A2 human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV; RSV A2
RSV strain B1 human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV; RSV B1
RSV strain RSS-2 human respiratory syncytial virus; RSV; RSV RSS-2
SARS coronavirus (SARS) SARS Coronavirus 3b SARS 3b
SARS Coronavirus E2 SARS E2
SARS Coronavirus Matrix SARS Matrix Protein
SARS Coronavirus NP SARS NP; SARS Nuclear Protein
SARS Coronavirus Nucleocapsid SARS Nucleocapsid
SARS Coronavirus Spike Protein SARS Spike Protein
SARS Envelope Protein EC 6.1.1.11; SARS; Serine--tRNA ligase; SERS; Seryl-tRNA synthetase, cytoplasmic
SV40 SV40 Virus Simian vacuolating virus 40; Simian virus 40
SV40 Virus Large T Antigen Simian vacuolating virus 40; Simian virus 40
Vaccinia Virus (Vaccinia) Vaccinia Virus Vaccinia Virus
Vaccinia Virus A27L Vaccinia Virus A27L
Vaccinia Virus Free form Vaccinia Virus Free form
Vaccinia Virus H1L Vaccinia Virus H1L
Varicella zoster virus (Chickenpox) Varicella zoster Virus Varicellovirus; VZV
West Nile Virus (West Nile fever) West Nile Virus Core Antigen West Nile Core; WNV core
West Nile Virus Envelope West Nile envelope; WNV envelope
West Nile Virus Glycoprotein M West Nile envelope; WNV envelope; WNV Glycoprotein M
West Nile Virus NS3 Protease West Nile Virus NS3 Protease
Yellow fever virus (Yellow fever) Yellow Fever Yellow Fever
Zika Virus (Zika Virus disease) Zika Virus NS1 Nonstructural protein 1; NS1; ZIKV NS1; ZIKV-NS1

Bacterial infections and research antibodies for detection

Bacteria can survive in different environments, including extremely hot and cold conditions. Most bacteria are harmless, and some actually colonize intestines and help to digest food. Only about 1% of bacteria encountered by humans cause disease. Examples include Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Streptococcus, Shigella, and Salmonella species.

Antibodies for bacterial infection detection

Figure.  Immunohistochemical analysis of H. pylori in stomach cancer tissue, using an H. pylori polyclonal antibody (Cat. No. PA5-32442) at a 1:100 dilution.

Bacteria name (Infection/disease) Antibodies Target aliases
Bacillus (Anthrax) Bacillus anthracis Lethal Factor Anthrax Lethal Factor; Anthrax LF; B. anthracis Lethal Factor; B. anthracis LF; Bacillus anthracis LF
Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Anthrax PA; Anthrax Protective Antigen; B. anthracis PA; B. anthracis Protective Antigen; Bacillus anthracis PA
Bacillus anthracis Spore Antigen Anthrax Spore; B. anthracis Spore; Bacillus anthracis Spore
Bacillus Spore Antigen Anthrax Spore; Bacillus Spore
Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease) Borrelia burgdorferi B. burgdorferi; Borrelia; Lyme disease
Chlamydia trachomatis (Chlamydia) Chlamydia trachomatis C. trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis EBs C. trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis LPS C. trachomatis Lipopolysaccharide; Chlamydia trachomatis Lipopolysaccharide
Chlamydia trachomatis MOMP C. trachomatis major outer membrane protein; C. trachomatis MOMP
Clostridia (Clostridial diseases) Clostridia Clostridium
Clostridium botulinum Toxin A botulinum; botulinum toxin; C. botulinum
Clostridium botulinum Toxin D C. botulinum Toxin D; C. botulinum Toxoid D
Clostridium botulinum Toxin E BoNT/E; Bontoxilysin E; C. botulinum Toxin E; C. botulinum Toxoid E
Clostridium difficile Toxin A C. difficile Toxin A; C. difficile Toxoid A; TcdA
Clostridium difficile Toxin B C. difficile Toxin B; C. difficile Toxoid B; TcdB
Clostridium perfringens C. perfringens
Clostridium perfringens Toxin B/C C. perfringens; C. perfringens Toxin B; C. perfringens Toxoid B; pCPF5603_62
Clostridium tetani Tetanus Toxin C. tetani
E. coli (E. coli infection) E. coli J5 LPS Escherichia coli
E. coli serotype 987P Pili Escherichia coli
E. coli serotype K88Ab Pili Escherichia coli
E. coli serotype K99 Pili Escherichia coli
E. coli serotype O Escherichia coli
E. coli serotype O/K Escherichia coli
E. coli serotype O157 Escherichia coli
Enterococcus (Enterococcal infection) Enterococcus Enterococcus
Haemophilus Influenzae (Haemophilus influenzae disease) Haemophilus Influenzae B Haemophilus b; Hib
Helicobacter pylori (Helicobacter pylori infection) Helicobacter pylori Campylobacter pyloridis; H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori 19 kDa Campylobacter pyloridis; H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori 54 kDa Campylobacter pyloridis; H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori 58 kDa Campylobacter pyloridis; H. pylori
Helicobacter pylori urease B Campylobacter pyloridis; H. pylori
Listeria (Listeria infection) Listeria L. monocytogenes
Listeria monocytogenes L. monocytogenes
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Tuberculosis ) Mycobacterium tuberculosis M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 16 kDa M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 38 kDa M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 40kDa M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85 M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis CFP-10 M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis ESAT-6 M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Mycobacterium tuberculosis HSP65 Heat shock protein 65; M. tuberculosis; myobacter
Neisseria meningitidis (Meningococcal disease ) Neisseria meningitidis Meningococcus; Neisseria meningitidis
Neisseria meningitidis Orf1 Meningococcus; Neisseria meningitidis
Pseudomonas (Pseudomonas infections) Pseudomonas Pseudomonas
Pseudomonas aeruginosa P. aeruginosa
Salmonella (Salmonella) Salmonella Salmonellae
Salmonella Group E Salmonella
Salmonella LPS Salmonellae
Shigella (Shigellosis) Shigella Shigella
Shigella dysenteriae 1 shigella; Shigella dysenteriae; shigellosis
Staphylococcus aureus (Staphylococcus aureus infection) Staphylococcus aureus S. aureus
Staphylococcus aureus (Methicillin-resistant) S. aureus
Staphylococcus Enterotoxin Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus Enterotoxin A Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus Enterotoxin B Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus Enterotoxin pan Staphylococcus
Staphylococcus epidermidis S. epidermidis
Streptococcus (Streptococcal infection) Streptococcus agalactiae S. agalactiae
Streptococcus Group A Streptococcus
Streptococcus Group B Streptococcus
Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcus; S. pneumoniae
Streptococcus pyogenes Group A S. pyogenes

Parasitic infections and research antibodies for detection

Parasites are organisms that live on/in a host and get nutrients to survive, which ultimately harms the host. In general, three types of organisms cause parasitic diseases: protozoa, helminths, and ectoparasites. Protozoa such as Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Plasmodium falciparum, and Toxoplasma gondii cause protozoan infections. Helminths, commonly known as parasitic worms, include flatworms, tapeworms, and roundworms. Ectoparasites live and/or feed on the outside of their host and include fleas, mosquitoes, and mites. Parasitic infections are more common in rural or developing areas. Malaria (caused by several species of Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum) is one of the deadliest parasitic diseases. There are also several common parasitic infections found in the United States, including cryptosporidiosis, trichomoniasis, and giardiasis.

Antibodies for parasitic infection detection

Figure. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded infected human brain stained with a Toxoplasma gondii antibody (Cat. No. PA5-16638), using peroxidase conjugate and AEC substrate.

Parasite name (Infection/disease) Antibodies Target aliases
Cryptosporidium parvum (Cryptosporidiosis) Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts Cryptosporidiosis; Cryptosporidium parvum
Giardia lamblia (Giardiasis) Giardia lamblia 65 kDa G. lamblia
Giardia lamblia cysts Giardia lamblia cysts
Plasmodium falciparum (Plasmodium falciparum infection) Plasmodium falciparum P. falciparum
Plasmodium falciparum HRP-2 P. falciparum
Plasmodium falciparum MSP1 P. falciparum
Plasmodium falciparum Schizont Infected RBC P. falciparum Schizont Infected Red Blood Cell
Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis) Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii
Toxoplasma gondii 38 kDa T. gondii
Toxoplasma gondii MIC3 T. gondii
Toxoplasma gondii P30 T. gondii
Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 T. gondii
Trichomonas vaginalis (Trichomoniasis) Trichomonas vaginalis T. vaginalis
Trichomonas vaginalis p65 T. vaginalis

Fungal infections and research antibodies for detection

Fungi live everywhere in the environment, and in the human body. Most fungi are not dangerous, and less than 1% of fungi are known to be pathogenic to humans. Two categories of fungal infections are opportunistic fungal infections and primary fungal infections. Opportunistic fungal infections, which usually affect individuals with weakened immune systems, are often very aggressive and sometimes lethal. Aspergillosis, candidiasis, and mucormycosis are opportunistic fungal infections. Primary fungal infections develop much more slowly and usually do not spread to organs deep in the body. 

Antibodies for fungal infection detection

Figure. Immunohistochemical analysis of human placental tissue presenting aspergillosis, stained with an Aspergillus species monoclonal antibody (Cat. No. MA1-74434).

Fungus name (Infection/disease) Antibodies Target aliases
Aspergillus (Aspergillosis) Aspergillus Aspergillus
Aspergillus niger Glucose Oxidase A. niger Glucose Oxidase; A. niger GOx; Aspergillus niger GOx