Amino Acid Charge

Amino Acid L_Amino Acid D_Amino Acid N_Terminal Amino Acid Modifications C_Terminal Amino Acid Modifications Charge Hydrophobicity Molecular Weight
Acetyl      yes    0.31  43.05 
Alanine  L-Alanine (A)  D-Alanine (a)      0.31  71.08 
Amide        yes  -0.6  16.02 
Arginine  L-Arginine (R)  D-Arginine (r)      -1.01  156.19 
Asparagine  L-Asparagine (N)  D-Asparagine (n)      -0.6  114.1 
Aspartic Acid  L-Aspartic Acid (D)  D-Aspartic Acid (d)      -1  -0.77  115.09 
Biocytin amide        yes  1.85  370.5 
Biotin      yes    227.31 
Cysteine  L-Cysteine (C)  D-Cysteine (c)      1.54  103.14 
Free acid        yes  -1  -0.77  17.01 
Free amine      yes    -0.99  1.01 
Glutamic Acid  L-Glutamic Acid (E)  D-Glutamic Acid (e)      -1  -0.64  129.12 
Glutamine  L-Glutamine (Q)  D-Glutamine (q)      -0.22  128.13 
Glycine  Glycine (G)        57.05 
Histidine  L-Histidine (H)  D-Histidine (h)      0.13  137.14 
Isoleucine  L-Isoleucine (I)  D-Isoleucine (i)      1.8  113.16 
Leucine  L-Leucine (L)  D-Leucine (l)      1.7  113.16 
Long Chain Biotin      yes    1.85  340.47 
Lysine  L-Lysine (K)  D-Lysine (k)      -0.99  128.17 
Methionine  L-Methionine (M)  D-Methionine (m)      1.23  131.2 
Phenylalanine  L-Phenylalanine (F)  D-Phenylalanine (f)      1.79  147.18 
Proline  L-Proline (P)  D-Proline (p)      0.72  97.12 
Serine  L-Serine (S)  D-Serine (s)      -0.04  87.08 
Threonine  L-Threonine (T)  D-Threonine (t)      0.26  101.11 
Tryptophan  L-Tryptophan (W)  D-Tryptophan (w)      2.25  186.21 
Tyrosine  L-Tyrosine (Y)  D-Tyrosine (y)      0.96  163.18 
Valine  L-Valine (V)  D-Valine (v)      1.22  99.13 

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Amino Acid Abreviations

Amino Acid Three Letter One Letter MW
Alanine  Ala  89 
Arginine  Arg  174 
Asparagine  Asn  132 
Asparagine/aspartic acid  Asx  — 
Aspartic acid  Asp  133 
Cysteine  Cys  121 
Glutamic Acid  Glu  147 
Glutamine  Gln  146 
Glutamine/glutamic acid  Glx  — 
Glycine  Gly  75 
Histidine  His  155 
Isoleucine  Ile  131 
Leucine  Leu  131 
Lysine  Lys  146 
Methionine  Met  149 
Phenylalanine  Phe  165 
Proline  Pro  115 
Serine  Ser  105 
Threonine  Thr  119 
Tryptophan  Trp  204 
Tyrosine  Tyr  181 
Valine  Val  117 

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Codon Usage Table*

U
U
C A
G

UUU Phe
UCU Ser
UAU Tyr
UGU Cys
U

UUC Phe
UCC Ser
UAC Tyr
UGC Cys
C

UUA Leu
UCA Ser
UAA Stop (och)
UGA Stop (opal)
A

UUG Leu
UCG Ser
UAG Stop (amb)
UGG Trp
G
C
CUU Leu
CCU Pro
CAU His
CGU Arg
U

CUC Leu
CCC Pro
CAC His
CGC Arg
C

CUA Leu
CCA Pro
CAA Gln
CGA Arg
A

CUG Leu
CCG Pro
CAG Gln
CGG Arg
G
A
AUU Ile
ACU Thr
AAU Asn
AGU Ser
U

AUC Ile
ACC Thr
AAC Asn
AGC Ser
C

AUA Ile
ACA Thr
AAA Lys
AGA Arg
A

AUG Met
ACG Thr
AAG Lys
AGG Arg
G
G
GUU Val
GCU Ala
GAU Asp
GGU Gly
U

GUC Val
GCC Ala
GAC Asp
GGC Gly
C

GUA Val
GCA Ala
GAA Glu
GGA Gly
A

GUG Val (Met)
GCG Ala
GAG Glu
GGG Gly
G

* Bases are given as ribonucleotides. GUG usually codes for valine, but it can code for methionine to initiate an mRNA chain. Stop (och) refers to the ochre termination triplet and Stop (amb) refers to the amber.
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Common Conversion Formulas for Nucleic Acids and Proteins

Weight Conversions
1 μg=10-6 g
1 ng=10-9 g
1 pg=10-12 g
1 fg=10-15 g

Spectrophotometric Conversions
1 A260 unit of double-stranded DNA = 50 μg/ml
1 A260 unit of single-stranded DNA = 33 μg/ml
1 A260 unit of single-stranded RNA = 40 μg/ml

DNA Molar Conversions
1 μg of 1,000 bp DNA = 1.52 pmole (3.03 pmoles of ends)
1 pmole of 1,000 bp DNA = 0.66 μg

Protein Molar Conversions
100 pmoles of 100,000 dalton protein = 10 μg
100 pmoles of 50,000 dalton protein = 5 μg
100 pmoles of 10,000 dalton protein = 1 μg

Protein/DNA Conversions
1 kb of DNA = 333 amino acids of coding capacity
= 3.7 x 104 dalton protein
10,000 dalton protein = 270 bp DNA
50,000 dalton protein = 1.35 kb DNA
100,000 dalton protein = 2.7 kb DNA

Formulas
Picomole Ends per Microgram of Double-Stranded Linear DNA
(2 x 106)/(660 x Number of Bases) = pmole ends/μg
Exact Molecular Weight of an Oligonucleotide
[(A x 312.2) + (G x 328.2) + (C x 288.2) + (T x 303.2) - 61.0]
= MW (g/mol) of specific oligonucleotide

Protein Molar Conversions
Micrograms Protein  =   Protein Size (kDa) x pmole protein x
109 μg   X       mole
         g              10 12 pmol

Half-Life of Common Radioisotopes
Radioisotope                                                              Half-Life
Carbon-14 (14C)                                                        5,730 years
Iodine-125 (125I)                                                        60 days
Phosphorus-32 (32P)                                                14.3 days
Sulfur-35 (35S)                                                           87.4 days
Tritium (3H)                                                                 12.4 years
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LT111