The human ERAS gene was initially reported as a processed pseudogene (HRasp, Ha-Ras2), with several base substitutions in coding regions, but was more recently described as potentially encoding a functional human ERAS protein. The ERAS oncogene supports the tumorigenic growth of embryonic stem cells by producing a constitutively active Ras protein. ERAS protein has less than 50% amino acid identity with H-Ras, another member of Ras family but the key domains essential for Ras function are highly conserved. The protein also contains amino-acid residues identical to those present in active mutants of Ras and causes oncogenic transformation in NIH 3T3 cells. Human ERAS gene is localized in the chromosomal region Xp11.23.
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