FGFR2 is a member of the fibroblast growth factor receptor family, where amino acid sequence is highly conserved between members and throughout evolution. FGFR family members differ from one another in their ligand affinities and tissue distribution. A full-length representative protein consists of an extracellular region, composed of three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single hydrophobic membrane-spanning segment and a cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domain. The extracellular portion of the protein interacts with fibroblast growth factors, setting in motion a cascade of downstream signals, ultimately influencing mitogenesis and differentiation. This particular family member is a high-affinity receptor for acidic, basic and/or keratinocyte growth factor, depending on the isoform. Mutations in the gene are associated with many craniosynostotic syndromes and bone malformations. The genomic organization of the gene encompasses 20 exons. Alternative splicing in multiple exons, including those encoding the Ig-like domains, the transmembrane region and the carboxyl terminus, results in varied isoforms which differ in structure and specificity. Isoform 1 has equal affinity for aFGF and bFGF but does not bind KGF.
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