Cell growth and viability is compromised by oxygen deprivation (hypoxia). Hypoxia-inducible factors, including HIF-1 alpha, HIF-1 beta (also designated Arnt 1), EPAS-1 (also designated HIF-2 alpha) and HIF-3 alpha, induce glycolysis, erythropoiesis and angiogenesis in order to restore oxygen homeostasis. Hypoxia-inducible factors are members of the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain transcription factor family. In response to hypoxia, HIF-1 alpha is upregulated and forms a heterodimer with Arnt 1 to form the HIF-1 complex. The HIF-1 complex recognizes and binds to the hypoxia responsive element (HRE) of hypoxia-inducible genes, thereby activating transcription.
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