SOAT1 (sterol O-acyltransferase-1), also designated ACAT1, is a homotetra-meric enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters from cholesterol and long chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA). The gene encoding human SOAT1 maps to chromosome 1 and is expressed as a protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in several tissues, including liver, kidney, adrenal glands and macrophages. SOAT1 is involved in cellular cholesterol homeostasis as well as in foam cell formation and the subsequent progression of atherosclerosis. Several SOAT inhibitors have been developed for the treatment of atherosclerosis. SOAT2 (sterol O-acyltransferase-2), also known as ACAT2 (acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-2), participates in lipo-protein assembly, catalyzing cholesterol esterification in mammalian cells. SOAT2 is an integral membrane protein that localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum of human intestinal cells. SOAT2 deficiency contributes to severe mental retardation and hypotonus.View more
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