Retinoic acid plays a critical role in development, cellular growth, and differentiation and induces the expression of a variety of genes. RAI17 expression is induced by retinoic acid and is predominantly expressed in heart, brain and ovaries. Within brain, highest expression is in amygdala. The deduced 1,067-amino acid protein contains an MSX-interacting zinc finger (MIZ) domain, a nuclear localization signal sequence, and 2 proline-rich regions. A strong intrinsic transactivation domain is identified in the C-terminal proline-rich region. RAI17 expression is detected in various cancer cell lines. RAI17 colocalizes with endogenous androgen receptor (AR) in the nuclei of prostate epithelial cells from human tissue samples. In human prostate cancer cells, RAI17 increases the transcriptional activity of AR. Studies using sumoylation-deficient AR mutants suggest that the increase of AR activity by RAI17 is dependent upon receptor sumoylation.View more
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