Adenoviruses are DNA viruses generally widespread in nature that are frequently the cause of acute upper respiratory tract infections (i.e. common colds). 49 human adenovirus serotypes have been discovered and divided into six subgroups, A to E, based on observation. They are an important cause of respiratory illness, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis, and have more recently been recognized as a potential cause of sexually transmitted diseases. Several types have oncogenic potential though most cause self-limiting febrile illnesses characterized by inflammation of conjunctivae and the respiratory tract. The virus can be isolated from the majority of tonsils/adenoids surgically removed, indicating latent infections. It is not known how long the virus can persist in the body, or whether it is capable of reactivation after long periods. In patients experiencing immunosuppression (e.g. AIDS) it can be reactivated, causing disease. Adenovirus vectors, particularly those based on Ad5, have shown great promise for the development of gene therapy protocols and have been used for clinical purpose.
Adenoviruses capsids have three principal protein components: the hexon, the penton, and the fiber. Hexon protein is a major coat protein (240 hexons per particle). Each hexon capsomere is homotrimer of the hexon protein, a complex protein of over 900 residues.
Adeno Virus; Adeno Virus 2; AdV; AdV-2; HADV; HADV-2