Signals from TGF-beta superfamily receptors are transduced to the nucleus by Smad proteins, which transcriptionally activate target genes. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans), defects in a TGF-beta-related pathway cause a reversible developmental arrest and metabolic shift at the dauer larval stage. DAF-3 transgenes interfere with dauer formation, playing a role in the nucleus. DAF-3 is unique in that it is antagonized, rather than activated, by a TGF-beta pathway.View more View less
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