Folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase (FPGS) catalyzes the addition of several equivalents of glutamic acid to the gamma-carboxyl group in the side chain of folate cofactors and analogs. Folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase has three functions in folate homeostasis in mammals: polyglutamation prevents efflux of folate cofactors from the cell, it increases the binding of folate cofactors to some of the enzymes of folate interconversion and biosynthesis, and it appears to allow the accumulation of folates in the mitochondria that are required for glycine synthesis. Folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase is widely expressed in human tumors and is tightly linked either to proliferation or to a lack of differentiation. The cytotoxicity of both thymidylate synthase and purine inhibitors requires continued inhibition of target for greater than one generation time, so that the integrative function of FPGS adds considerably to the efficiency of folate antimetabolites.
Folylpoly-gamma-glutamate synthetase; folylpolyglutamate synthase; Folylpolyglutamate synthase, mitochondrial; FPGS; mitochondrial; Tetrahydrofolate synthase; Tetrahydrofolylpolyglutamate synthase