Peroxisome proliferators are non-genotoxic carcinogens which are purported to exert their effect on cells through their interaction with members of the nuclear hormone receptor family termed peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR's). Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-dependent intracellular proteins that stimulate transcription of specific genes by binding to specific DNA sequences following activation by the appropriate ligand. Studies indicate that PPAR's are activated by peroxisome proliferators such as clofibric acid, nafenopin, and WY-14,643, as well as by some fatty acids. It has also been shown that PPAR's can induce transcription of acyl coenzyme A oxidase and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) A6 through interaction with specific response elements. PPAR, like several other nuclear hormone receptors, heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor (RXR) alpha.
Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 1; Nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group C member 3; peroxisome proliferative activated receptor, alpha; Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 2; peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 4; peroxisome proliferator activator receptor, gamma; peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor alpha variant 3; peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptor gamma variant 1; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha; Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; PPAR-alpha; PPAR-gamma