Adipose tissue is an energy reserve in animals and, in nondomestic species, is strictly regulated. Adipose cells produce and secrete numerous physiologically important proteins, such as lipoprotein lipase (LPL), leptin, adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kDa (Acrp30), perilipin, and resistin. Resistin, also known as Adipocyte Secreted Factor (ADSF) and FIZZ3, is a cytokine that is specifically secreted by adipocytes. While the function of resistin is not well understood, it appears to have key paracrine roles and has a suggested role in type 2 diabetes. Studies show that in obese, diabetic mice the levels of serum resistin are increased, which has an antagonistic effect on insulin. Additional studies have shown that resistin causes insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice.
Resistin gene expression requires C/EBP alpha, which is necessary and sufficient for expression. Studies show that the coactivators CBP and p300, which have been shown to display histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, abundantly acetylate the histones at the resistin promoter suggesting their role in activating chromatin for resistin transcription. Numerous PPAR gamma and RXR ligands have been shown to downregulate resistin expression in adipocytes.
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