ATG5 (Autophagy Related 5) is an important element for autophagy and may play an important role in the apoptotic process. ATG5 is also involved in other cellular processes that include mitochondrial quality control after oxidative damage, negative regulation of the innate anti-viral immune response, lymphocyte development and proliferation, MHC II antigen presentation, and adipocyte differentiation. Following conjugation to ATG12, the conjugate participates in the formation of autophagosome. ATG5 contributes to autophagic cell death by interacting with Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD). The ATG5-ATG12 conjugate forms a cup-shaped isolation membrane that then detaches from the membrane immediately before or after autophagosome formation is completed. APG5 may play a role in the apoptotic process, possibly within the modified cytoskeleton. Further, APG5 expression is a relatively late event in the apoptotic process, occurring downstream of caspase activity. The APG5-APG12 conjugate also associates with innate immune response proteins such as RIG-I and VISA (also known as IPS-1), inhibiting type I interferon production and permitting viral replication in host cells. Diseases associated with ATG5 dysfunction include spinocerebellar ataxia.
APG 5; APG5-like; Apoptosis-specific protein; ATG5 autophagy related 5 homolog; Autophagy protein 5; autophagy-related 5