Description: This SDRNR monoclonal antibody recognizes human and mouse AKT (also known as Protein Kinase B (PKB)) when phosphorylated on S473. AKT is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a key role in multiple cellular processes including metabolism, proliferation, apoptosis/survival, and migration. There are three homologous isoforms of AKT: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3. AKT is activated by binding of its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain to membrane phospholipids and by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of AKT at T308 by PDK1 and at S473 is required for full activation of this kinase. AKT promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis via phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets including Bad, Foxo1, c-Raf, and caspase-9. Deregulation of AKT has been implicated as a major contributing factor in many types of cancer. AKT is negatively regulated by the phosphatase PTEN as well as by the chemical inhibitor LY294002. Specificity of this SDRNR clone was determined by ELISA, flow cytometry, and western blotting.
Applications Reported: This SDRNR antibody has been reported for use in intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis.
Applications Tested: This SDRNR antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis of normal human peripheral blood cells. This can be used at 5 µL (0.06 µg) per test. A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. Cell number should be determined empirically but can range from 10^5 to 10^8 cells/test. It is recommended that the antibody be carefully titrated for optimal performance in the assay of interest.
Staining Protocol: All protocols work well for this monoclonal antibody. Use of Protocol A: Two-step protocol: intracellular (cytoplasmic) proteins allows for the greatest flexibility for detection of surface and intracellular (cytoplasmic) proteins. Use of Protocol B: One-step protocol: intracellular (nuclear) proteins is recommended for staining of transcription factors in conjunction with surface and phosphorylated intracellular (cytoplasmic) proteins. Protocol C: Two-step protocol: Fixation/Methanol allows for the greatest discrimination of phospho-specific signaling between unstimulated and stimulated samples, but with limitations on the ability to stain specific surface proteins (refer to "Clone Performance Following Fixation/Permeabilization" located in the Best Protocols Section under the Resources tab online). All Protocols can be found in the Flow Cytometry Protocols: "Staining Intracellular Antigens for Flow Cytometry Protocol" located in the Best Protocols Section under the Resources tab online.
Light sensitivity: This tandem dye is sensitive to photo-induced oxidation. Please protect this vial and stained samples from light.
Fixation: Samples can be stored in IC Fixation Buffer (Product # 00-8222) (100 µL of cell sample + 100 µL of IC Fixation Buffer) or 1-step Fix/Lyse Solution (Product # 00-5333) for up to 3 days in the dark at 4°C with minimal impact on brightness and FRET efficiency/compensation. Some generalizations regarding fluorophore performance after fixation can be made, but clone specific performance should be determined empirically.
Excitation: 488-561 nm; Emission: 775 nm; Laser: Blue Laser, Green Laser, Yellow-Green Laser.
Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered.
AKT also known as protein kinase B (PKB) or RAS-alpha, is an ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in diverse biological responses such as regulation of metabolism, cell survival and growth by phosphorylating multiple proteins. This protein kinase is activated by insulin, PI3K, IGF1 and various other growth and survival factors. Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including forkhead transcription factors, and caspase-9. The AKT pathway is a major target for cancer drug discovery.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: AKT1 kinase; AKT1m; Akt1m protein; PKB; PKB alpha; Protein kinase B; Protein kinase B alpha; protein kinase B-alpha; Proto-oncogene c-Akt; rac protein kinase alpha; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase; RAC-PK-alpha; related to A and C kinases; serine-threonine protein kinase; Thymoma viral proto-oncogene; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene-like protein 1
Gene Aliases: AKT; AKT1; CWS6; PKB; PKB-ALPHA; PKB/Akt; PKBalpha; PRKBA; RAC; RAC-ALPHA
Molecular Function: annexin calcium-binding protein calmodulin intracellular calcium-sensing protein kinase non-receptor serine/threonine protein kinase protein kinase transfer/carrier protein transferase