Intact IgG appears on a non-reducing gel as ~150 kDa band and upon reduction generating a ~25 kDa light chain band and a ~50 kDa heavy chain.
Recombinant rabbit polyclonal antibodies are unique offerings from Thermo Fisher Scientific. They are comprised of a selection of multiple different recombinant monoclonal antibodies, providing the best of both worlds – the sensitivity of polyclonal antibodies with the specificity of monoclonal antibodies - all delivered with the consistency only found in a recombinant antibody. While functionally the same as a polyclonal antibody – recognizing multiple epitope sites on the target and producing higher detection sensitivity for low abundance targets – a recombinant rabbit polyclonal antibody has a known mixture of light and heavy chains. The exact population can be produced in every lot, circumventing the biological variability typically associated with polyclonal antibody production.
IL-21 is a 17 kDa immunomodulatory cytokine produced mainly by Natural Killer Cells (NKT), T helper (Th) 17 and T follicular helper (TFH) cells. In TFH cells, IL-21 expression leads to autocrine signaling through the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) and STAT3, which leads to additional transcriptional activation by Bcl6. As with IFN gamma for Th1 and IL-4 for Th2 cells, IL-21 is critical for TFH cell development and effector function. IL-21 plays a role in T cell-dependent B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, stimulation of IgG production and induction of apoptotic signaling in naive B cells. In Th17 cells, IL-21 expression and autocrine feedback through STAT3, IRF4 and ROR gamma t lead to upregulation of the IL-23R, thereby preparing Th17 cells for maturation and maintenance by the inflammatory cytokine IL-23. While upregulating IRF4 and ROR gamma t, IL-21 also mediates the downregulation of Foxp3. IL-21 deficient mice are protected from developing colitis upon chemical treatment by their inability to upregulate Th17-associated molecules. In comparison, elevated levels of IL-21 are present in chemically-induced colitis mouse models.
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Protein Aliases: CX2; IL-21; Interleukin-21; interleukin-21 isoform
Gene Aliases: IL-21; Il21
UniProt ID: (Mouse) Q9ES17
Entrez Gene ID: (Mouse) 60505