Isoform 1 functions as extracellular chaperone that prevents aggregation of nonnative proteins. Prevents stress-induced aggregation of blood plasma proteins. Inhibits formation of amyloid fibrils by APP, APOC2, B2M, CALCA, CSN3, SNCA and aggregation-prone LYZ variants (in vitro). Does not require ATP. Maintains partially unfolded proteins in a state appropriate for subsequent refolding by other chaperones, such as HSPA8/HSC70. Does not refold proteins by itself. Binding to cell surface receptors triggers internalization of the chaperone-client complex and subsequent lysosomal or proteasomal degradation. Secreted isoform 1 protects cells against apoptosis and against cytolysis by complement. Intracellular isoforms interact with ubiquitin and SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes and promote the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins. Promotes proteasomal degradation of COMMD1 and IKBKB. Modulates NF-kappa-B transcriptional activity. Nuclear isoforms promote apoptosis. Mitochondrial isoforms suppress BAX-dependent release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and inhibit apoptosis. Plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation.
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Protein Aliases: Aging-associated gene 4 protein; aging-associated protein 4; apo j; Apo J a; Apo J alpha; Apo J b; Apo J beta; Apo J α; Apo J β; Apo Ja; Apo Jb; Apo-J; ApoJ a; ApoJ alpha; ApoJ b; ApoJ beta; ApoJ α; ApoJ β; ApoJa; ApoJalpha; ApoJb; ApoJbeta; Apolipoprotein J; CLI; Clusterin; Clusterin alpha chain; Clusterin beta chain; Complement cytolysis inhibitor; Complement cytolysis inhibitor a chain; Complement cytolysis inhibitor b chain; complement lysis inhibitor; Complement-associated protein SP-40,40; HGNC:2095; Ku70-binding protein 1; MGC24903; NA1/NA2; SGP-2; Sulfated glycoprotein 2; Testosterone-repressed prostate message 2; TRPM-2
Gene Aliases: AAG4; APO-J; APOJ; CLI; CLU; CLU1; CLU2; KUB1; NA1/NA2; SGP-2; SGP2; SP-40; TRPM-2; TRPM2
UniProt ID: (Human) P10909
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 1191