In Western blots, this antibody shows less than 4% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) CCL3/MIP-1 alpha and does not cross-react with recombinant mouse (rm) CCL3/MIP-1 alpha, rmCCL4/MIP-1 beta, rhCXCL8/IL-8, rhCCL5, rhCXCL1, rhCXCL2, or rhCXCL3.
CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta, MIP1B) belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family. Functionally, CCL4 is involved in chemotactic and proinflammatory effects, and homeostasis. CCL4 is produced by macrophages upon stimulation by bacterial endotoxins. CCL4 recruits and stimulates various inflammatory cells at sites of inflammation. CCL4 is produced by lymphocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Both CCL4 and the related protein CCL3 participate in the host response to invading bacterial, viral, parasite and fungal pathogens by regulating the trafficking and activation state of selected subgroups of inflammatory cells. While both CCL4 and CCL3 exert similar effects on monocytes, their effect on lymphocytes differ, with CCL4 selectively attracting CD4+ lymphocytes and CCL3 selectively attracting CD8+ lymphocytes. Additionally, both have been shown to be potent chemoattractants for B cells, eosinophils and dendritic cells. The processed form of CCL4 can induce down-modulation of surface expression of the chemokine receptor CCR5, thus inhibiting the CCR5-mediated entry of HIV-1 in T cells. CCL4 binds with high affinity to CCR5 receptors.
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Protein Aliases: ACT-2; ACT2; AT744.1; C-C motif chemokine 4; C-C motif ligand 4; chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4; G-26; G-26 T-lymphocyte-secreted protein; HC21; LAG-1; LAG1; Lymphocyte activation gene 1 protein; lymphocyte-activation gene 1; Macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta; MIP-1-beta; MIP-1-beta(1-69); MIP-1-beta(3-69); MIP1-beta; MIP1B; MIP1B1; PAT 744; Protein H400; SCYA2; SCYA4; secreted protein G-26; SIS-gamma; small inducible cytokine A4 (homologous to mouse Mip-1b); Small-inducible cytokine A4; T-cell activation protein 2
Gene Aliases: ACT2; AT744.1; CCL4; G-26; HC21; LAG-1; LAG1; MIP-1-beta; MIP1B; MIP1B1; SCYA2; SCYA4
UniProt ID: (Human) P13236
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 6351