Immunofluorescent analysis of Dihydropyridine Receptor alpha-2 in HeLa Cells. Cells were grown on chamber slides and fixed with formaldehyde prior to staining. Cells were probed without (control) or with a Dihydropyridine Receptor alpha-2 monoclonal antibody (Product # MA3-921) at a dilution of 1:100 overnight at 4 C, washed with PBS and incubated with a DyLight-488 conjugated secondary antibody (Product # 35503). Dihydropyridine Receptor alpha-2 staining (green), F-Actin staining with Phalloidin (red) and nuclei with DAPI (blue) is shown. Images were taken at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Guinea pig, Human, Mouse, Rabbit, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Rabbit, Rat, Pig, Fish, Mouse, Human, Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG2a|
|Immunogen||Purified rabbit dihydropyridine receptor.|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1:100-1:200|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||Assay dependent|
|Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (F))||1:500|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||1:500|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:500|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
MA3-921 detects 1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) receptor alpha-2 subunit from human, rat, mouse, guinea pig and rabbit skeletal and cardiac muscle.
MA3-921 has been successfully used in Western blot, immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemistry procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects a 220 kDa protein under non-reducing and a 143 kDa protein under reducing conditions representing DHP from rabbit skeletal muscle membrane preparations. Immunohistochemical staining of DHP in rabbit skeletal muscle with MA3-921 results in double rows of discrete punctate staining representing pairs of triads on the opposing sides of the Z-lines.
The MA3-921 antigen is purified rabbit DHP receptor.
Voltage-sensitive calcium channels mediate the entry of calcium into many types of excitable cells and thus play a key role in neurotransmitter release and excitation-contraction (E-C) coupling. The 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) are synthetic organic compounds which can be used to identify the L-type calcium channels that are found in all types of vertebrate muscle, neuronal and neuroendocrine cells. The DHP receptor is part of the L-type calcium channel complex and is thought to be the voltage sensor in E-C coupling.
The purified DHP receptor isolated from triads is composed of at least four subunits. The alpha-1 subunit contains the binding site for the DHPs and shows high sequence homology to the voltage gated sodium channel. The alpha-2 subunit is a large glycoprotein associated with the DHP receptor which was first described in skeletal muscle and is also found in high concentrations in other excitable tissues such as cardiac muscle and brain and in low concentrations in most other tissues studied. The other two subunits that co-purify with the DHP receptor are termed beta and gamma.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-based Structural Analysis of the Dihydropyridine Receptor ¿1S Subunit Reveals Conformational Differences Induced by Binding of the ß1a Subunit.
MA3-921 was used in immunocytochemistry to analyze the dihydropyridine receptor alpha-1S subunit to reveal conformational differences induced by binding of the beta-1a subnit discovered by fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based structural analysis
|Mahalingam M,Perez CF,Fessenden JD||The Journal of biological chemistry (291:13762)||2016|
Amino acid residues 489-503 of dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR) ß1a subunit are critical for structural communication between the skeletal muscle DHPR complex and type 1 ryanodine receptor.
MA3-921 was used in immunocytochemistry to determine the role of the C-terminal end of the beta1a subunit in the functional and structural communication between the DHPR and the Ca(2+) release channel (RyR1)
|Eltit JM,Franzini-Armstrong C,Perez CF||The Journal of biological chemistry (289:36116)||2014|
Subcellular localization of the delayed rectifier K(+) channels KCNQ1 and ERG1 in the rat heart.
MA3-921 was used in immunocytochemistry to investigate the subcellular localization of KCNQ1 and ERG1 in cardiac muscle cells
|Rasmussen HB,Møller M,Knaus HG,Jensen BS,Olesen SP,Jørgensen NK||American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology (286:H1300)||2004|
Complete atrial-specific knockout of sodium-calcium exchange eliminates sinoatrial node pacemaker activity.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to study the elimination of sinoatrial node pacemaker activity by the complete atrial-specific ablation of NCX1
|Groenke S,Larson ED,Alber S,Zhang R,Lamp ST,Ren X,Nakano H,Jordan MC,Karagueuzian HS,Roos KP,Nakano A,Proenza C,Philipson KD,Goldhaber JI||PloS one (8:null)||2013|
Tail-anchored membrane protein SLMAP is a novel regulator of cardiac function at the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to study the modulation of cardiac function by SLAMPs using a murine transgenic model
|Nader M,Westendorp B,Hawari O,Salih M,Stewart AF,Leenen FH,Tuana BS||American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology (302:H1138)||2012|
Functional expression of transgenic 1sDHPR channels in adult mammalian skeletal muscle fibres.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the effect of alpha1sDHPR overexpression on calcium signaling in muscle fibers
|DiFranco M,Tran P,Quiñonez M,Vergara JL||The Journal of physiology (589:1421)||2011|
Loss of the AE3 anion exchanger in a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy model causes rapid decompensation and heart failure.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the role of AE3 anion exchanger in normal and pathologic heart functions
|Al Moamen NJ,Prasad V,Bodi I,Miller ML,Neiman ML,Lasko VM,Alper SL,Wieczorek DF,Lorenz JN,Shull GE||Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology (50:137)||2011|
Aerobic exercise training improves skeletal muscle function and Ca2+ handling-related protein expression in sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on skeletal muscle function and calcium-related protein expression
|Bueno CR,Ferreira JC,Pereira MG,Bacurau AV,Brum PC||Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (109:702)||2010|
Aerobic exercise training improves Ca2+ handling and redox status of skeletal muscle in mice.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the effect of aerobic exercise on calcium signal and redox state of skeletal muscle
|Ferreira JC,Bacurau AV,Bueno CR,Cunha TC,Tanaka LY,Jardim MA,Ramires PR,Brum PC||Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.) (235:497)||2010|
Sodium accumulation promotes diastolic dysfunction in end-stage heart failure following Serca2 knockout.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to examine the effects of sodium accumulation on diastolic function following Serca2 knockout
|Louch WE,Hougen K,Mørk HK,Swift F,Aronsen JM,Sjaastad I,Reims HM,Roald B,Andersson KB,Christensen G,Sejersted OM||The Journal of physiology (588:465)||2010|
Slowing of cardiomyocyte Ca2+ release and contraction during heart failure progression in postinfarction mice.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the effect of the slowing of cardiomyocyte calcium release during congestive heart failure (CHF) progression
|Mørk HK,Sjaastad I,Sejersted OM,Louch WE||American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology (296:H1069)||2009|
S100A1 deficiency results in prolonged ventricular repolarization in response to sympathetic activation.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the role of S100A1 in normal heart function
|Ackermann GE,Domenighetti AA,Deten A,Bonath I,Marenholz I,Pedrazzini T,Erne P,Heizmann CW||General physiology and biophysics (27:127)||2008|
Increased cardiomyocyte function and Ca2+ transients in mice during early congestive heart failure.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the myocardial function in a mouse model of early congestive heart failure
|Mørk HK,Sjaastad I,Sande JB,Periasamy M,Sejersted OM,Louch WE||Journal of molecular and cellular cardiology (43:177)||2007|
Microarray profiling of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum proteins through microarray analyses
|Schulz JS,Palmer N,Steckelberg J,Jones SJ,Zeece MG||Biochimica et biophysica acta (1764:1429)||2006|
Reduced expression of regucalcin in young and aged mdx diaphragm indicates abnormal cytosolic calcium handling in dystrophin-deficient muscle.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to study the reduced regucalcin expression observed in diaphragm muscle in muscular dystrophy and the significance for calcium handling
|Doran P,Dowling P,Donoghue P,Buffini M,Ohlendieck K||Biochimica et biophysica acta (1764:773)||2006|
Daily exercise-induced cardioprotection is associated with changes in calcium regulatory proteins in hypertensive rats.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the association of daily exercise-induced cardioprotection with changes in calcium regulatory proteins in hypertensive rats
|Collins HL,Loka AM,Dicarlo SE||American journal of physiology. Heart and circulatory physiology (288:H532)||2005|
Increased sensitivity of the ryanodine receptor to halothane-induced oligomerization in malignant hyperthermia-susceptible human skeletal muscle.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the importance of RyR2 complex formation in the development of a metabolic crisis in malignant hyperthermia
|Glover L,Heffron JJ,Ohlendieck K||Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (96:11)||2004|
Visualization of the domain structure of an L-type Ca2+ channel using electron cryo-microscopy.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to conduct structural analysis of an L-type calcium channel
|Wolf M,Eberhart A,Glossmann H,Striessnig J,Grigorieff N||Journal of molecular biology (332:171)||2003|
Ca2+ regulatory systems in rat myocardium are altered by 24 weeks treadmill training.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the effect of 24-week treadmill training on the calcium regulatory systems in rat myocardium
|Morán M,Saborido A,Megías A||Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology (446:161)||2003|
Drastic reduction of calsequestrin-like proteins and impaired calcium binding in dystrophic mdx muscle.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to identify the changes in protein expression and calcium homeostasis in dystrophic mdx muscle
|Culligan K,Banville N,Dowling P,Ohlendieck K||Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (92:435)||2002|
Calsequestrin binds to monomeric and complexed forms of key calcium-handling proteins in native sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes from rabbit skeletal muscle.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to study the binding of calcium handling proteins to calsequestrin in rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes
|Glover L,Culligan K,Cala S,Mulvey C,Ohlendieck K||Biochimica et biophysica acta (1515:120)||2001|
Calcium channel alpha(2)delta subunits-structure and Gabapentin binding.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the structure and properties of the novel alpha 2 delta-2 and -4 subunits
|Marais E,Klugbauer N,Hofmann F||Molecular pharmacology (59:1243)||2001|
Native skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor exists as a supramolecular triad complex.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to study the structure of the native skeletal muscle dihydropyridine receptor
|Froemming GR,Ohlendieck K||Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS (58:312)||2001|
Low-frequency stimulation of fast muscle affects the abundance of Ca(2+)-ATPase but not its oligomeric status.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to investigate the possible effects of stimulation-induced changes in the abundance of calcium pump on protein-protein interactions
|Harmon S,Froemming GR,Leisner E,Pette D,Ohlendieck K||Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (90:371)||2001|
Comparative analysis of the isoform expression pattern of Ca(2+)-regulatory membrane proteins in fast-twitch, slow-twitch, cardiac, neonatal and chronic low-frequency stimulated muscle fibers.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to study the expression of Ca(2+) regulatory membrane protein isoforms in skeletal, cardiac and neonatal muscle fibres
|Froemming GR,Murray BE,Harmon S,Pette D,Ohlendieck K||Biochimica et biophysica acta (1466:151)||2000|
Effects of chronic low-frequency stimulation on Ca2+-regulatory membrane proteins in rabbit fast muscle.
MA3-921 was used in western blot to study the effects of chronic low frequency stimulation of fast-twitch muscle on the levels of Ca(2+) regulatory membrane proteins
|Ohlendieck K,Frömming GR,Murray BE,Maguire PB,Leisner E,Traub I,Pette D||Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology (438:700)||1999|
Kir2.6 regulates the surface expression of Kir2.x inward rectifier potassium channels.
MA3-921 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the role of Kir2.6 in regulating the abundance of Kir2 channels on plasma membrane
|Dassau L,Conti LR,Radeke CM,Ptá¿ek LJ,Vandenberg CA||The Journal of biological chemistry (286:9526)||2011|
Zebrafish relatively relaxed mutants have a ryanodine receptor defect, show slow swimming and provide a model of multi-minicore disease.
MA3-921 was used in immunohistochemistry to study zebrafish relatively relaxed mutants carrying a ryanodine receptor defect as a model of multi-minicore disease
|Hirata H,Watanabe T,Hatakeyama J,Sprague SM,Saint-Amant L,Nagashima A,Cui WW,Zhou W,Kuwada JY||Development (Cambridge, England) (134:2771)||2007|
Role of ryanodine receptors in the assembly of calcium release units in skeletal muscle.
MA3-921 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the calcium release apparatus in skeletal muscle
|Protasi F,Franzini-Armstrong C,Allen PD||The Journal of cell biology (140:831)||1998|