Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65) are present in autoimmune disorders such as insulin-dependent (type1) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), stiff man syndrome and polyendocrine autoimmune disease. Auto-antibodies to GAD65 are present in 60-70% of individuals with newly diagnosed IDDM and thus are important markers for disease activity. These auto-antibodies usually recognize conformation-dependent regions on GAD65 and rarely bind to the second isoform, GAD67. Auto-antibodies to GAD67 are found in only 15% of recent-onset IDDM patients and most of this binding can be blocked with GAD65, suggesting shared epitopes between the two isoforms of GAD.
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Protein Aliases: 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase; GAD-65; Glutamate decarboxylase 2; Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (islet); glutamate decarboxylase 2 (pancreatic islets and brain, 65kDa); Glutamate decarboxylase 65 kDa isoform; Glutamate decarboxylase-2 (pancreas); glutamic acid decarboxylase 2; glutamic acid decarboxylase 65
Gene Aliases: 6330404F12Rik; GAD(65); Gad-2; GAD2; GAD65