GAD-65 and GAD-67 are members of the group II decarboxylase family of proteins and are responsible for catalyzing the rate limiting step in the production of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) from L-glutamic acid. Although both GADs are found in the brain, GAD-65 localizes to synaptic vesicle membranes in nerve terminals, while GAD-67 is distributed throughout the cell. GAD-67 is responsible for the basal levels of GABA synthesis. In the case of a heightened demand for GABA in neurotransmission, GAD-65 will transiently activate to assist in GABA production. The loss of GAD-65 is detrimental and can impair GABA neurotransmission, however the loss of GAD-67 is lethal. Due to alternative splicing, two isoforms exist for GAD-67: the predominant GAD-67 form and the minor GAD-25 form.
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Protein Aliases: 67 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase; FLJ45882; GAD 67; GAD-67; Glutamate decarboxylase 1; glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67kDa); Glutamate decarboxylase 67 kDa isoform; OTTHUMP00000041055
Gene Aliases: CPSQ1; GAD; GAD1; GAD67; SCP
Molecular Function: decarboxylase