Intermediate filaments of astrocytes and ependymal cells in a mouse brain cryosection identified using mouse monoclonal anti-GFAP and visualized with Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti–mouse IgG antibody. Intermediate filaments of astrocytes and ependymal cells in a 14 µm mouse brain cryosection were identified using mouse monoclonal anti–glial fibrillary monoclonal antibody (anti-GFAP, Cat. no. A21282) and visualized with green-fluorescent Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti–mouse IgG antibody (Cat. no. A11029). Nuclei were stained with blue-fluorescent DAPI (Cat. no. D1306, D3571, D21490). The image was deconvolved using Huygens software (Scientific Volume Imaging, http://www.svi.nl/). 3-D reconstruction was performed using Imaris software (Bitplane AG, http://www.bitplane.com/).
|Tested species reactivity||Human|
|Published species reactivity||Rat, Non-human primate, Mouse, Human, Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG1, kappa|
|Immunogen||protein glial fibrillary acidic protein|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.2, with 0.1% BSA|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||Assay Dependent|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||Assay Dependent|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
|Immunohistochemistry - Free Floating (IHC (Free))||See 1 publications below|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||See 4 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||See 1 publications below|
|Western Blot (WB)||See 2 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (F))||See 5 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||See 4 publications below|
|Miscellaneous PubMed (MISC)||See 5 publications below|
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a member of the class III intermediate filament protein family. It is heavily, and specifically, expressed in astrocytes and certain other astroglia in the central nervous system, in satellite cells in peripheral ganglia, and in non-myelinating Schwann cells in peripheral nerves. In addition, neural stem cells frequently strongly express GFAP. Antibodies to GFAP are therefore very useful as markers of astrocytic cells. In addition many types of brain tumor, presumably derived from astrocytic cells, heavily express GFAP. GFAP is also found in the lens epithelium, Kupffer cells of the liver, in some cells in salivary tumors and has been reported in erythrocytes.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
The autophagic- lysosomal pathway determines the fate of glial cells under manganese- induced oxidative stress conditions.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry (free floating) to report that autophagy is activated to counteract the harmful effect caused by manganese.
|Gorojod RM,Alaimo A,Porte Alcon S,Pomilio C,Saravia F,Kotler ML||Free radical biology and medicine (87:237)||2015|
Transplantation of neurons derived from human iPS cells cultured on collagen matrix into guinea-pig cochleae.
A-21282 was used in immunocytochemistry evaluate the efficacy of a neural induction method for human induced pluripotent stem cells and transplant these cells into guinea-pig cochleae for replacement of spiral ganglion neurons
|Ishikawa M,Ohnishi H,Skerleva D,Sakamoto T,Yamamoto N,Hotta A,Ito J,Nakagawa T||Journal of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (null:null)||2015|
Central but not systemic administration of XPro1595 is therapeutic following moderate spinal cord injury in mice.
A-21282 was used in immunocytochemistry to elucidate the contribution of soluble TNF and transmembrane-associated TNF to the development of the lesion in the central nervous system
|Novrup HG,Bracchi-Ricard V,Ellman DG,Ricard J,Jain A,Runko E,Lyck L,Yli-Karjanmaa M,Szymkowski DE,Pearse DD,Lambertsen KL,Bethea JR||Journal of neuroinflammation (11:null)||2014|
MECP2 isoform-specific vectors with regulated expression for Rett syndrome gene therapy.
A-21282 was used in immunocytochemistry to develop viral vectors to treat patients with Rett Syndrome
|Rastegar M,Hotta A,Pasceri P,Makarem M,Cheung AY,Elliott S,Park KJ,Adachi M,Jones FS,Clarke ID,Dirks P,Ellis J||PloS one (4:null)||2009|
Prokineticin receptor 2 expression identifies migrating neuroblasts and their subventricular zone transient-amplifying progenitors in adult mice.
A-21282 was used in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry to study the expression of prokineticin receptor 2 and the identification of migrating neuroblasts in adult mice
|Puverel S,Nakatani H,Parras C,Soussi-Yanicostas N||The Journal of comparative neurology (512:232)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
VLA-4 blockade promotes differential routes into human CNS involving PSGL-1 rolling of T cells and MCAM-adhesion of TH17 cells.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to characterize VLA-4 blockade and promotion of differential routes into human CNS involving MCAM-adhesion of TH17 cells and PSGL-1 rolling of T cells
|Schneider-Hohendorf T,Rossaint J,Mohan H,Böning D,Breuer J,Kuhlmann T,Gross CC,Flanagan K,Sorokin L,Vestweber D,Zarbock A,Schwab N,Wiendl H||The Journal of experimental medicine (211:1833)||2014|
Primary cultured astrocytes from old rats are capable to activate the Nrf2 response against MPP+ toxicity after tBHQ pretreatment.
A-21282 was used in western blot to test if cortical astrocytes derived from old rats respond to tertbuthyl-hydroquinene pretreatment and promote an antioxidant rich environment
|Alarcón-Aguilar A,Luna-López A,Ventura-Gallegos JL,Lazzarini R,Galván-Arzate S,González-Puertos VY,Morán J,Santamaría A,Königsberg M||Neurobiology of aging (35:1901)||2014|
The mood stabilizer valproate activates human FGF1 gene promoter through inhibiting HDAC and GSK-3 activities.
A-21282 was used in western blot to
|Kao CY,Hsu YC,Liu JW,Lee DC,Chung YF,Chiu IM||Journal of neurochemistry (126:4)||2013|
Flexibilide obtained from cultured soft coral has anti-neuroinflammatory and analgesic effects through the upregulation of spinal transforming growth factor-ß1 in neuropathic rats.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to elucidate the role of flexibilide from cultured soft coral and its analgesic and anti-neuroinflammatory effects through upregulation of spinal transofrming growth factor-beta1 in neuropathic rat
|Chen NF,Huang SY,Lu CH,Chen CL,Feng CW,Chen CH,Hung HC,Lin YY,Sung PJ,Sung CS,Yang SN,Wang HM,Chang YC,Sheu JH,Chen WF,Wen ZH||Marine drugs (12:3792)||2014|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Toll-like receptor 2 and facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to explore role of TLR2 in the facial motoneuron response to axotomy
|Wainwright DA,Xin J,Mesnard NA,Sanders VM,Jones KJ||Neuroscience letters (471:10)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Effects of facial nerve axotomy on Th2- and Th1-associated chemokine expression in the facial motor nucleus of wild-type and presymptomatic mSOD1 mice.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to investigate the role of CXCL11 in facial motoneuron survival
|Wainwright DA,Xin J,Mesnard NA,Politis CM,Sanders VM,Jones KJ||Journal of neuroimmunology (216:66)||2009|
Intraspinal cord delivery of IGF-I mediated by adeno-associated virus 2 is neuroprotective in a rat model of familial ALS.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to assess the efficacy of intraspinal cord injection of CERE-130 on motor neurons and preservation of neuromuscular function
|Franz CK,Federici T,Yang J,Backus C,Oh SS,Teng Q,Carlton E,Bishop KM,Gasmi M,Bartus RT,Feldman EL,Boulis NM||Neurobiology of disease (33:473)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Basic fibroblast growth factor impact on retinoblastoma progression and survival.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to assess basic fibroblast growth factor as a growth and chemoresistance factor in retinoblastoma
|Cebulla CM,Jockovich ME,Piña Y,Boutrid H,Alegret A,Kulak A,Hackam AS,Bhattacharya SK,Feuer WJ,Murray TG||Investigative ophthalmology and visual science (49:5215)||2008|
Curcumin-releasing mechanically adaptive intracortical implants improve the proximal neuronal density and blood-brain barrier stability.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry to test if using implant softening and antioxidant release reduces neuroinflammation
|Potter KA,Jorfi M,Householder KT,Foster EJ,Weder C,Capadona JR||Acta biomaterialia (10:2209)||2014|
Sinularin from indigenous soft coral attenuates nociceptive responses and spinal neuroinflammation in carrageenan-induced inflammatory rat model.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry to report that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels
|Huang SY,Chen NF,Chen WF,Hung HC,Lee HP,Lin YY,Wang HM,Sung PJ,Sheu JH,Wen ZH||Marine drugs (10:1899)||2012|
Distribution of leptin-sensitive cells in the postnatal and adult mouse brain.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry to identify leptin-sensitive cells in the postnatal and adult rodent brain
|Caron E,Sachot C,Prevot V,Bouret SG||The Journal of comparative neurology (518:459)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Attenuation of astroglial reactivity by interleukin-10.
A-21282 was used in flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to test if astroglial reactivity is attenuated by the application of interleukin-10 to the site of corticectomy
|Balasingam V,Yong VW||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (16:2945)||1996|
TGF-ß1 attenuates spinal neuroinflammation and the excitatory amino acid system in rats with neuropathic pain.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry (frozen) to study the antinociceptive effects of TGF-β1 on chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in rats.
|Chen NF,Huang SY,Chen WF,Chen CH,Lu CH,Chen CL,Yang SN,Wang HM,Wen ZH||The journal of pain : official journal of the American Pain Society (14:1671)||2013|
The effect of resveratrol on neurodegeneration and blood brain barrier stability surrounding intracortical microelectrodes.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry to find a biological mechanism which mediates neuroinflammation.
|Potter KA,Buck AC,Self WK,Callanan ME,Sunil S,Capadona JR||Biomaterials (34:7001)||2013|
Prophylactic and therapeutic targeting of the neurokinin-1 receptor limits neuroinflammation in a murine model of pneumococcal meningitis.
A-21282 was used in flow cytometry to study SP/NK-1R targeting as a treatment option fro microbe induced neuroinflammation.
|Chauhan VS,Kluttz JM,Bost KL,Marriott I||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (186:7255)||2011|
House-dust mite allergen and ozone exposure decreases histamine H3 receptors in the brainstem respiratory nuclei.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry to test if airway allergic diseases are associated with altered histamine H3 receptor expression in the nucleus tractus solitarius and caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus in the lung
|Sekizawa S,Bechtold AG,Tham RC,Kott KS,Hyde DM,Joad JP,Bonham AC||Toxicology and applied pharmacology (247:204)||2010|
Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice.
A-21282 was used in immunohistochemistry (frozen) to assess if Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy.
|Wainwright DA,Xin J,Mesnard NA,Beahrs TR,Politis CM,Sanders VM,Jones KJ||ASN neuro (1:null)||2009|