|Tested species reactivity||Human|
|Published species reactivity||Mouse, Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG1, kappa|
|Immunogen||protein glial fibrillary acidic protein|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 488|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.2, with 0.1% BSA|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-10 ug/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||Assay Dependent|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a member of the class III intermediate filament protein family. It is heavily, and specifically, expressed in astrocytes and certain other astroglia in the central nervous system, in satellite cells in peripheral ganglia, and in non-myelinating Schwann cells in peripheral nerves. In addition, neural stem cells frequently strongly express GFAP. Antibodies to GFAP are therefore very useful as markers of astrocytic cells. In addition many types of brain tumor, presumably derived from astrocytic cells, heavily express GFAP. GFAP is also found in the lens epithelium, Kupffer cells of the liver, in some cells in salivary tumors and has been reported in erythrocytes.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Suppressors of cytokine signaling 1 and 3 are upregulated in brain resident cells in response to virus-induced inflammation of the central nervous system via at least two distinctive pathways.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry (frozen) to study mechanisms regulating SOCS expression during viral infection.
|Steffensen MA,Fenger C,Christensen JE,Jørgensen CK,Bassi MR,Christensen JP,Finsen B,Thomsen AR||Journal of virology (88:14090)||2014|
IDO expression in brain tumors increases the recruitment of regulatory T cells and negatively impacts survival.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry (frozen) to study the role of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase in brain tumors and the impact on Treg recruitment.
|Wainwright DA,Balyasnikova IV,Chang AL,Ahmed AU,Moon KS,Auffinger B,Tobias AL,Han Y,Lesniak MS||Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (18:6110)||2012|
Differential impact of interferon regulatory factor 7 in initiation of the type I interferon response in the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-infected central nervous system versus the periphery.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry (frozen) to elucidate mechanisms involved in virus-induced central nervous system inflammation.
|Christensen JE,Fenger C,Issazadeh-Navikas S,Krug A,Liljestrøm P,Goriely S,Paludan SR,Finsen B,Christensen JP,Thomsen AR||Journal of virology (86:7384)||2012|
A role for DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factor in the recognition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by glial cells.
A-21294 was used in flow cytometry to investigate the expression and role of DAI in the inflammatory responses of resident CNS cells to neurotropic DNA viruses.
|Furr SR,Chauhan VS,Moerdyk-Schauwecker MJ,Marriott I||Journal of neuroinflammation (8:null)||2011|
The presence of IL-17A and T helper 17 cells in experimental mouse brain tumors and human glioma.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to study Th17 cells in glia-derived tumors of the central nervous system
|Wainwright DA,Sengupta S,Han Y,Ulasov IV,Lesniak MS||PloS one (5:null)||2010|
Vesicular stomatitis virus infects resident cells of the central nervous system and induces replication-dependent inflammatory responses.
A-21294 was used in flow cytometry to investigate the effect of vesicular stomatitis virus infection on CNS system and inflammation induction
|Chauhan VS,Furr SR,Sterka DG,Nelson DA,Moerdyk-Schauwecker M,Marriott I,Grdzelishvili VZ||Virology (400:187)||2010|
Dual-energy precursor and nuclear erythroid-related factor 2 activator treatment additively improve redox glutathione levels and neuron survival in aging and Alzheimer mouse neurons upstream of reactive oxygen species.
A-21294 was used in immunocytochemistry to investigate the role of reactive oxygen species in neuron loss, aging, and Alzheimer's disease.
|Ghosh D,LeVault KR,Brewer GJ||Neurobiology of aging (35:179)||2014|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
A new method to isolate microglia from adult mice and culture them for an extended period of time.
A-21294 was used in flow cytometry to isolate and characterize microglia from adult mouse brains
|Moussaud S,Draheim HJ||Journal of neuroscience methods (187:243)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Toll-like receptor 2 and facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to explore role of TLR2 in the facial motoneuron response to axotomy
|Wainwright DA,Xin J,Mesnard NA,Sanders VM,Jones KJ||Neuroscience letters (471:10)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Effects of facial nerve axotomy on Th2- and Th1-associated chemokine expression in the facial motor nucleus of wild-type and presymptomatic mSOD1 mice.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to investigate the role of CXCL11 in facial motoneuron survival
|Wainwright DA,Xin J,Mesnard NA,Politis CM,Sanders VM,Jones KJ||Journal of neuroimmunology (216:66)||2009|
|Not Applicable||5 µg/ml||
Fulminant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-induced inflammation of the CNS involves a cytokine-chemokine-cytokine-chemokine cascade.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to address the mechanisms regulating the expression of CXCL10 in the central nervous system of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus -infected mice
|Christensen JE,Simonsen S,Fenger C,Sørensen MR,Moos T,Christensen JP,Finsen B,Thomsen AR||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (182:1079)||2009|
Monitoring the protective effects of minocycline treatment with radiolabeled annexin V in an experimental model of focal cerebral ischemia.
A-21294 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to assess the use of (99m)Tc-annexin V with SPECT to monitor the antiapoptotic effects of minocycline therapy
|Tang XN,Wang Q,Koike MA,Cheng D,Goris ML,Blankenberg FG,Yenari MA||Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (48:1822)||2007|