|Tested species reactivity||Bovine, Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Rat, Mouse, Human, Not Applicable, Guinea pig|
|Host / Isotype||Rat / IgG2a, kappa|
|Immunogen||Enriched bovine glial filaments.|
|Contains||0.1% sodium azide|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|ELISA (ELISA)||0.1-0.5 ug/ml|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||Assay Dependent|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||Assay Dependent|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||10-50 ug/ml|
|Immunoprecipitation (IP)||2-5 ug|
|Western Blot (WB)||Assay Dependent|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||See 24 publications below|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||See 6 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (F))||See 8 publications below|
|Miscellaneous PubMed (MISC)||See 10 publications below|
|Western Blot (WB)||See 2 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||See 3 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry - Free Floating (IHC (Free))||See 3 publications below|
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is a member of the class III intermediate filament protein family. It is heavily, and specifically, expressed in astrocytes and certain other astroglia in the central nervous system, in satellite cells in peripheral ganglia, and in non-myelinating Schwann cells in peripheral nerves. In addition, neural stem cells frequently strongly express GFAP. Antibodies to GFAP are therefore very useful as markers of astrocytic cells. In addition many types of brain tumor, presumably derived from astrocytic cells, heavily express GFAP. GFAP is also found in the lens epithelium, Kupffer cells of the liver, in some cells in salivary tumors and has been reported in erythrocytes.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Retinal ganglion cell survival and axon regeneration after optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to elucidate optic nerve injury in naked mole-rats and axon regeneration and retinal ganglion cell survival
|Park KK,Luo X,Mooney SJ,Yungher BJ,Belin S,Wang C,Holmes MM,He Z||The Journal of comparative neurology (525:380)||2017|
Colocalization of aromatase in spinal cord astrocytes: differences in expression and relationship to mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in murine models of a painful and a non-painful bone tumor.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to examine the relationship between tumor-induced astrocyte activation and aromatase expression during the development of cancer pain.
|O'Brien EE,Smeester BA,Michlitsch KS,Lee JH,Beitz AJ||Neuroscience (301:235)||2015|
Fibronectin Matrix Assembly after Spinal Cord Injury.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the assembly of fibronectin matrix after spinal cord injury.
|Zhu Y,Soderblom C,Trojanowsky M,Lee DH,Lee JK||Journal of neurotrauma (32:1158)||2015|
Astrocyte overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 improves outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to characterize intracerebral hemorrhage and an improved outcome with astrocyte overexpression of heme oxygenase-1
|Chen-Roetling J,Song W,Schipper HM,Regan CS,Regan RF||Stroke (46:1093)||2015|
TREM2 regulates microglial cell activation in response to demyelination in vivo.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the contribution of TREM2 to microglia function in vivo
|Cantoni C,Bollman B,Licastro D,Xie M,Mikesell R,Schmidt R,Yuede CM,Galimberti D,Olivecrona G,Klein RS,Cross AH,Otero K,Piccio L||Acta neuropathologica (129:429)||2015|
Hematogenous macrophage depletion reduces the fibrotic scar and increases axonal growth after spinal cord injury.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the effect of hematogenous macrophage depletion on fibrotic scar and axonal growth after spinal cord injury.
|Zhu Y,Soderblom C,Krishnan V,Ashbaugh J,Bethea JR,Lee JK||Neurobiology of disease (74:114)||2015|
Post-injury treatment with 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, a TrkB receptor agonist, protects against experimental traumatic brain injury via PI3K/Akt signaling.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the effects and underlying mechanisms of TrkB activation on traumatic brain injury
|Wu CH,Hung TH,Chen CC,Ke CH,Lee CY,Wang PY,Chen SF||PloS one (9:null)||2014|
Regulatory factor X transcription factors control Musashi1 transcription in mouse neural stem/progenitor cells.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms by which Msi1 is selectively expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells
|Kawase S,Kuwako K,Imai T,Renault-Mihara F,Yaguchi K,Itohara S,Okano H||Stem cells and development (23:2250)||2014|
Astrocytic TGF-ß signaling limits inflammation and reduces neuronal damage during central nervous system Toxoplasma infection.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of astrocytic TGF-beta during central nervous system Toxoplasma infection
|Cekanaviciute E,Dietrich HK,Axtell RC,Williams AM,Egusquiza R,Wai KM,Koshy AA,Buckwalter MS||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (193:139)||2014|
Dorsal raphe neuroinflammation promotes dramatic behavioral stress dysregulation.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of neuroinflammation in behavioral stress dysregulation and its mechanism.
|Howerton AR,Roland AV,Bale TL||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (34:7113)||2014|
Neuregulin-1/glial growth factor stimulates Schwann cell migration by inducing ¿5 ß1 integrin-ErbB2-focal adhesion kinase complex formation.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry and western blot to study the role of neuregulin-1/glial growth factor in Schwann cell migration and its mechanism
|Wakatsuki S,Araki T,Sehara-Fujisawa A||Genes to cells : devoted to molecular and cellular mechanisms (19:66)||2014|
Salidroside improves behavioral and histological outcomes and reduces apoptosis via PI3K/Akt signaling after experimental traumatic brain injury.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the effects of salidroside on traumatic brain injury
|Chen SF,Tsai HJ,Hung TH,Chen CC,Lee CY,Wu CH,Wang PY,Liao NC||PloS one (7:null)||2012|
Antiinflammatory treatment ameliorates HPA stress axis dysfunction in a mouse model of stress sensitivity.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to test if a component of elevated stress reactivity involved the engagement of neuroimmune effectors and test if nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug treatment alters this effect.
|Gerber AR,Bale TL||Endocrinology (153:4830)||2012|
The fate of ultrafast degrading polymeric implants in the brain.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to compare the in vivo absorption of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) used in intraparenchymal cortical devices.
|Lewitus DY,Smith KL,Shain W,Bolikal D,Kohn J||Biomaterials (32:5543)||2011|
Biohybrid Carbon Nanotube/Agarose Fibers for Neural Tissue Engineering.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to report a novel approach for producing carbon nanotube fibers using polysaccharide agarose.
|Lewitus DY,Landers J,Branch J,Smith KL,Callegari G,Kohn J,Neimark AV||Advanced functional materials (21:2624)||2011|
Ultrafast resorbing polymers for use as carriers for cortical neural probes.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to describe a novel tyrosine-derived terpolymer for use in flexible neural prosthetic devices.
|Lewitus D,Smith KL,Shain W,Kohn J||Acta biomaterialia (7:2483)||2011|
Caveolin-1 deletion reduces early brain injury after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to determine the role of caveolin-1 in intracerebral hemorrhage.
|Chang CF,Chen SF,Lee TS,Lee HF,Chen SF,Shyue SK||The American journal of pathology (178:1749)||2011|
Light responses and morphology of bNOS-immunoreactive neurons in the mouse retina.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the regulation of ocular nitric oxide release.
|Pang JJ,Gao F,Wu SM||The Journal of comparative neurology (518:2456)||2010|
Quantitative assessment of glial cells in the human and guinea pig enteric nervous system with an anti-Sox8/9/10 antibody.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to quantitate glial cells in the human and guinea pig enteric nervous system.
|Hoff S,Zeller F,von Weyhern CW,Wegner M,Schemann M,Michel K,Rühl A||The Journal of comparative neurology (509:356)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
La Crosse bunyavirus nonstructural protein NSs serves to suppress the type I interferon system of mammalian hosts.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to propose that the non-structural proteins of the La Crosse virus function to suppress the mammalian innate immune response
|Blakqori G,Delhaye S,Habjan M,Blair CD,Sánchez-Vargas I,Olson KE,Attarzadeh-Yazdi G,Fragkoudis R,Kohl A,Kalinke U,Weiss S,Michiels T,Staeheli P,Weber F||Journal of virology (81:4991)||2007|
|Mouse||Not Cited||The cell cycle-apoptosis connection revisited in the adult brain.||Bauer S,Patterson PH||The Journal of cell biology (171:641)||2005|
|Mouse||1:1000||Roles of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors in regulating acetylcholine release from myenteric neurons of mouse ileum.||Takeuchi T,Fujinami K,Goto H,Fujita A,Taketo MM,Manabe T,Matsui M,Hata F||Journal of neurophysiology (93:2841)||2005|
|Mouse||Not Cited||Glioma formation in neurofibromatosis 1 reflects preferential activation of K-RAS in astrocytes.||Dasgupta B,Li W,Perry A,Gutmann DH||Cancer research (65:236)||2005|
CNS wound healing is severely depressed in metallothionein I- and II-deficient mice.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to characterize the physiological role of metallothioneins I and II in the brain after freeze injury.
|Penkowa M,Carrasco J,Giralt M,Moos T,Hidalgo J||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (19:2535)||1999|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Epigenetic regulation of neural N-glycomics.
13-0300 was used in immunocytochemistry to study neural N-glycomics and their epigenetic regulation
|Kizuka Y,Nakano M,Miura Y,Taniguchi N||Proteomics (16:2854)||2016|
Regional and stage-specific effects of prospectively purified vascular cells on the adult V-SVZ neural stem cell lineage.
13-0300 was used in immunocytochemistry to develop a strategy to define the functional and molecular contribution of vascular cells to stem cell niches in the brain
|Crouch EE,Liu C,Silva-Vargas V,Doetsch F||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (35:4528)||2015|
|Mouse||Not Cited||Sox10 directs neural stem cells toward the oligodendrocyte lineage by decreasing Suppressor of Fused expression.||Pozniak CD,Langseth AJ,Dijkgraaf GJ,Choe Y,Werb Z,Pleasure SJ||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (107:21795)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Imaging of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor expression as biomarkers of detrimental versus beneficial glial responses in mouse models of Alzheimer's and other CNS pathologies.
13-0300 was used in immunocytochemistry and immunohistochemistry - frozen section to report that expression of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor in astrocytes and microglia reflect beneficial and deleterious glial reactions, respectively, in neurodegener
|Ji B,Maeda J,Sawada M,Ono M,Okauchi T,Inaji M,Zhang MR,Suzuki K,Ando K,Staufenbiel M,Trojanowski JQ,Lee VM,Higuchi M,Suhara T||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (28:12255)||2008|
Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP)-2/megalin is transiently expressed in a subpopulation of neural progenitors in the embryonic mouse spinal cord.
13-0300 was used in immunocytochemistry to elucidate the role of megalin in the developing spinal cord.
|Wicher G,Larsson M,Rask L,Aldskogius H||The Journal of comparative neurology (492:123)||2005|
|Rat||1:500||Calcineurin triggers reactive/inflammatory processes in astrocytes and is upregulated in aging and Alzheimer's models.||Norris CM,Kadish I,Blalock EM,Chen KC,Thibault V,Porter NM,Landfield PW,Kraner SD||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (25:4649)||2005|
Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member APRIL contributes to fibrotic scar formation after spinal cord injury.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to assess the contribution to fibrotic scar formation after spinal cord injury due to tumor necrosis factor superfamily member APRIL
|Funk LH,Hackett AR,Bunge MB,Lee JK||Journal of neuroinflammation (13:null)||2016|
Nuclear pore complex remodeling by p75(NTR) cleavage controls TGF-ß signaling and astrocyte functions.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to report how nuclear pore complex remodeling regulates astrocyte-neuronal communication.
|Schachtrup C,Ryu JK,Mammadzada K,Khan AS,Carlton PM,Perez A,Christian F,Le Moan N,Vagena E,Baeza-Raja B,Rafalski V,Chan JP,Nitschke R,Houslay MD,Ellisman MH,Wyss-Coray T,Palop JJ,Akassoglou K||Nature neuroscience (18:1077)||2015|
An aberrant sugar modification of BACE1 blocks its lysosomal targeting in Alzheimer's disease.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to study the effect of bisecting N-acetylglucosamine on beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) activity.
|Kizuka Y,Kitazume S,Fujinawa R,Saito T,Iwata N,Saido TC,Nakano M,Yamaguchi Y,Hashimoto Y,Staufenbiel M,Hatsuta H,Murayama S,Manya H,Endo T,Taniguchi N||EMBO molecular medicine (7:175)||2015|
ABCA1 influences neuroinflammation and neuronal death.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to elucidate the cell-type specific role of ABCA in neuroinflammation in vivo.
|Karasinska JM,de Haan W,Franciosi S,Ruddle P,Fan J,Kruit JK,Stukas S,Lütjohann D,Gutmann DH,Wellington CL,Hayden MR||Neurobiology of disease (54:445)||2013|
Partial change in EphA4 knockout mouse phenotype: loss of diminished GFAP upregulation following spinal cord injury.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to re-examine astrocytic gliosis following injury using mice from our EphA4 null colony.
|Dixon KJ,Munro KM,Boyd AW,Bartlett PF,Turnley AM||Neuroscience letters (525:66)||2012|
Minocycline attenuates photoreceptor degeneration in a mouse model of subretinal hemorrhage microglial: inhibition as a potential therapeutic strategy.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to describe a mouse model of subretinal hemorrhage.
|Zhao L,Ma W,Fariss RN,Wong WT||The American journal of pathology (179:1265)||2011|
Factors supporting intrathecal humoral responses following viral encephalomyelitis.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to study antibody secreting cell homing, differentiation, and survival in the spinal cord.
|Phares TW,Marques CP,Stohlman SA,Hinton DR,Bergmann CC||Journal of virology (85:2589)||2011|
Distribution of integrin-like immunoreactivity on primate brain microvasculature.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to determine the integrin-like immunoreactivity of the primate brain microvasculature.
|Haring HP,Akamine BS,Habermann R,Koziol JA,Del Zoppo GJ||Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology (55:236)||1996|
Inhibition of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) reduces neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic brain damage.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to study the role of STAT3 in hypoxia ischemia-induced brain damage
|Hristova M,Rocha-Ferreira E,Fontana X,Thei L,Buckle R,Christou M,Hompoonsup S,Gostelow N,Raivich G,Peebles D||Journal of neurochemistry (136:981)||2016|
Bisecting GlcNAc modification stabilizes BACE1 protein under oxidative stress conditions.
13-0300 was used in immunocytochemistry to test if bisecting GlcNAc would stabilize BACE1 protein upon oxidative stress.
|Kizuka Y,Nakano M,Kitazume S,Saito T,Saido TC,Taniguchi N||The Biochemical journal (473:21)||2016|
Pten Mutations Alter Brain Growth Trajectory and Allocation of Cell Types through Elevated ß-Catenin Signaling.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to show that Pten and β-catenin signaling regulates normal brain growth trajectory by controlling cell number.
|Chen Y,Huang WC,Séjourné J,Clipperton-Allen AE,Page DT||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (35:10252)||2015|
Identification of a neurovascular signaling pathway regulating seizures in mice.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry (frozen) to study the contribution of protease tissue plasminogen activator to seizures.
|Fredriksson L,Stevenson TK,Su EJ,Ragsdale M,Moore S,Craciun S,Schielke GP,Murphy GG,Lawrence DA||Annals of clinical and translational neurology (2:722)||2015|
Interleukin-10 is a critical regulator of white matter lesion containment following viral induced demyelination.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry (paraffin) to study the contribution of IL-10 to virus-induced demyelination.
|Puntambekar SS,Hinton DR,Yin X,Savarin C,Bergmann CC,Trapp BD,Stohlman SA||Glia (null:null)||2015|
The BRAF kinase domain promotes the development of gliomas in vivo.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry (paraffin) to assess if BRAF-KD is sufficient to induce gliomas or if Ink4a/Arf loss is also needed.
|Shin CH,Grossmann AH,Holmen SL,Robinson JP||Genes and cancer (6:9)||2015|
Astrocyte-derived CXCL10 drives accumulation of antibody-secreting cells in the central nervous system during viral encephalomyelitis.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry (paraffin) to report that central nervous system-expressed CXCR3 ligand CXCL10 is the critical chemokine regulating antibody-secreting cells accumulation.
|Phares TW,Stohlman SA,Hinton DR,Bergmann CC||Journal of virology (87:3382)||2013|
Amelioration of the Alzheimer's disease phenotype by absence of 12/15-lipoxygenase.
13-0300 was used in western blot to discuss the role of 12/15 lipoxygenase in Alzheimer's disease
|Yang H,Zhuo JM,Chu J,Chinnici C,Praticò D||Biological psychiatry (68:922)||2010|
In vivo expression of neuroglobin in reactive astrocytes during neuropathology in murine models of traumatic brain injury, cerebral malaria, and autoimmune encephalitis.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the localization and regulation of Ngb in different neuropathological models in vivo
|DellaValle B,Hempel C,Kurtzhals JA,Penkowa M||Glia (58:1220)||2010|
Constitutive and heat-inducible expression of HSP105 in neurons and glial cells in culture.
13-0300 was used in immunocytochemistry to determine expression of HSP105 in the newborn mouse brain.
|Satoh J,Yukitake M,Kuroda Y||Neuroreport (9:2977)||1998|
Tissue-type plasminogen activator is an extracellular mediator of Purkinje cell damage and altered gait.
13-0300 was used in western blot to study the involvement of tissue-type plasminogen activator in Purkinje cell damage
|Cops EJ,Sashindranath M,Daglas M,Short KM,da Fonseca Pereira C,Pang TY,Lijnen RH,Smyth IM,Hannan AJ,Samson AL,Medcalf RL||Experimental neurology (249:8)||2013|
Role of the Rap1 GTPase in astrocyte growth regulation.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry and western blot to test if dysregulated Rap1 leads to increased astrocyte proliferation in vivo
|Apicelli AJ,Uhlmann EJ,Baldwin RL,Ding H,Nagy A,Guha A,Gutmann DH||Glia (42:225)||2003|
Differences in distribution and regulation of astrocytic aquaporin-4 in human and rat hydrocephalic brain.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to compare the expression of AQP4 in hydrocephalic human brain with human controls and hydrocephalic rat brain.
|Skjolding AD,Holst AV,Broholm H,Laursen H,Juhler M||Neuropathology and applied neurobiology (39:179)||2013|
Loss of astrocyte connexins 43 and 30 does not significantly alter susceptibility or severity of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to test if loss of astrocytic gap junction proteins enhances primary demyelinating diseases.
|Lutz SE,Raine CS,Brosnan CF||Journal of neuroimmunology (245:8)||2012|
Recovery from spinal cord injury: a new transection model in the C57Bl/6 mouse.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to discuss spinal cord regeneration
|Seitz A,Aglow E,Heber-Katz E||Journal of neuroscience research (67:337)||2002|
Diverse microglial responses after intrahippocampal administration of lipopolysaccharide.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - free floating to study the time course of microgliosis after a single intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide
|Herber DL,Maloney JL,Roth LM,Freeman MJ,Morgan D,Gordon MN||Glia (53:382)||2006|
Time-dependent reduction in Abeta levels after intracranial LPS administration in APP transgenic mice.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - free floating to report that activated brain glia rapidly and transiently clear diffuse Abeta deposits but not compacted fibrillar amyloid
|Herber DL,Roth LM,Wilson D,Wilson N,Mason JE,Morgan D,Gordon MN||Experimental neurology (190:245)||2004|
Heterozygosity for the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) gene products results in increased astrocyte numbers and decreased p27-Kip1 expression in TSC2+/- cells.
13-0300 was used in immunohistochemistry - free floating and western blot to test if dysregulated astrocyte function due to mutations in TSC and TSC2 contribute to the pathogenesis of brain abnormalities in mice.
|Uhlmann EJ,Apicelli AJ,Baldwin RL,Burke SP,Bajenaru ML,Onda H,Kwiatkowski D,Gutmann DH||Oncogene (21:4050)||2002|