Localization of glutamine synthase in the retina. Paraffin sections of mouse (A, B), rat (C, D, G-I), or human (E, F) retina fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde were reacted with anti-glutamine synthase (red fluorescence staining in B, D, G, I, and brown immuno-peroxidase reaction [using ABC kit and visualization with DAB product in F]. Nuclei in some immunofluorescence experiments (A-D) were stained with DAPI (shown in cyan), and with nuclear fast red in E and F. On inspection at low magnification, anti- glutamine synthase reacted with a single population of cells extending from the ganglion cell layer (GCL) through the inner nuclear layer (INL). No signal was detected in controls either pre-incubated with 100ug/ml of the immunizing peptide (A) or with pre-immune serum (C, E). The pattern of staining observed in all experiments is typicals. This finding was confirmed by co-localization (indicated by yellow in I) of glutamine synthase (red in G) with antoher marker of glutamine synthase (green in H).
|Tested species reactivity||Bovine, Human, Mouse, Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Mouse|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Storage buffer||whole serum|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20°C or -80°C if preferred|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:5000|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||See 2 publications below|
Suggested positive control: antigen standard for GLUL (transient overexpression lysate), retinal muller cells.
Glutamine synthase is part of the glutamine synthetase family. Ammonia incorporation in animals occurs through the actions of glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthase. Glutamate plays the central role in mammalian nitrogen flow, serving as both a nitrogen donor and nitrogen acceptor.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Neurovascular crosstalk between interneurons and capillaries is required for vision.
PA1-46165 was used in immunohistochemistry to study amacrine and horizontal cells in the retinal vascular plexuses
|Usui Y,Westenskow PD,Kurihara T,Aguilar E,Sakimoto S,Paris LP,Wittgrove C,Feitelberg D,Friedlander MS,Moreno SK,Dorrell MI,Friedlander M||The Journal of clinical investigation (125:2335)||2015|
Defective retinal vascular endothelial cell development as a consequence of impaired integrin ¿Vß8-mediated activation of transforming growth factor-ß.
PA1-46165 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the importance of of alpha V beta 8-TGF beta signaling in the development of the murine retinal vasculature
|Arnold TD,Ferrero GM,Qiu H,Phan IT,Akhurst RJ,Huang EJ,Reichardt LF||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (32:1197)||2012|