Immunohistochemical analysis of Hyla cinerea (green treefrog) forebrain using GnRH Polyclonal Antibody (Product # PA1-121). Tissues were blocked in 10% normal goat serum in 0.1M PBS and then stained with PA1-121 at 1:1000 dilution for 48 hours at 4°C followed by a goat anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibody for 60 minutes at room temperature and then an avidin-biotin complex reagent (60min). Staining was developed with DAB substrate for 10 minutes. Data courtesy of Innovators Program.
|Tested species reactivity||Amphibian, Mouse|
|Published species reactivity||Mouse, Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues pyroE(22) H W S Y G L R P G-NH2(32) of mouse GnRH.|
|Purification||Antigen affinity chromatography|
|Storage buffer||PBS with 1mg/ml BSA|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||1:200-1:1000|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
|Immunohistochemistry - Free Floating (IHC (Free))||See 1 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) (IHC (P))||See 1 publications below|
|Miscellaneous PubMed (MISC)||See 2 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||See 11 publications below|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||See 1 publications below|
PA1-121 detects gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in mouse brain and in amphibian (Hyla cinerea) samples.
PA1-121 has been successfully used in immunohistochemistry procedures. Immunohistochemical staining of GnRH in mouse embryo brain tissue using PA1-121 results in staining of neurons in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT).
In immunohistochemical procedures, 4% paraformaldehyde is recommended as a fixative.
The PA1-121 immunogen is a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues pyroE(22) H W S Y G L R P G-NH2(32) of mouse GnRH. This sequence is completely conserved in rat and tree shrew and is 78% conserved in zebrafish. The PA1-121 immunizing peptide (Cat. # PEP-168) is available for use in neutralization and control experiments.
Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), also known as luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), is a key molecule in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. GnRH, a decapeptide, is produced by neurons in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and secreted in a pulsatile manner into the cardiovascular system. The frequency and amplitude of GnRH pulses determine secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the pituitary. Higher frequencies (greater than one pulse per hour) stimulate LH secretion while lower frequencies stimulate FSH secretion. The generation of GnRH pulses is effected by numerous stimuli, such as neural, hormonal and environmental. Therefore, behavioral and physiological conditions such as sleep, exercise, and stress can affect the GnRH pulses and cause a disruption of the normal cycle.
Recent studies show that GnRH also has a role in mediating cancer. GnRH has been shown to inhibit the growth of human uterine leiomyloma cells by suppressing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. GnRH analogs have been used to treat a wide variety of reproductive cancers, although the side effects of using such compounds are often quite severe.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Distribution and regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, kisspeptin, RF-amide related peptide-3, and dynorphin in the bovine hypothalamus.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry - free floating to characterize bovine hypothalamus for distribution and regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, RF-amide related peptide-3, kisspeptin, and dynorphin
|Tanco VM,Whitlock BK,Jones MA,Wilborn RR,Brandebourg TD,Foradori CD||PeerJ (4:null)||2016|
Deletion of Vax1 from Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons Abolishes GnRH Expression and Leads to Hypogonadism and Infertility.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry - paraffin section to study the abolishment of GnRH expression and leads to hypogonadism and infertility due to a deletion of Vax1 from gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons
|Hoffmann HM,Trang C,Gong P,Kimura I,Pandolfi EC,Mellon PL||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (36:3506)||2016|
In Utero Development of Kisspeptin/GnRH Neural Circuitry in Male Mice.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to examine the role of kisspeptin/GPR54 in the developing brain
|Kumar D,Periasamy V,Freese M,Voigt A,Boehm U||Endocrinology (156:3084)||2015|
Chronic oestradiol reduces the dendritic spine density of KNDy (kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin) neurones in the arcuate nucleus of ovariectomised Tac2-enhanced green fluorescent protein transgenic mice.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to assess the effect of oestrogens on the dendrites of neurons
|Cholanian M,Krajewski-Hall SJ,McMullen NT,Rance NE||Journal of neuroendocrinology (27:253)||2015|
Gonadotropin and kisspeptin gene expression, but not GnRH, are impaired in cFOS deficient mice.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to study reproductive function in cFOS-deficient mice
|Xie C,Jonak CR,Kauffman AS,Coss D||Molecular and cellular endocrinology (411:223)||2015|
Conditional genetic transsynaptic tracing in the embryonic mouse brain.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to describe a method for transsynaptic tracing in mouse embryos using the novel recombinant ROSA26 alleles
|Kumar D,Boehm U||Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE (null:null)||2014|
Murine arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons communicate with GnRH neurons in utero.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the in utero communication between gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons and arcuate nucleus kisspeptin neurons
|Kumar D,Freese M,Drexler D,Hermans-Borgmeyer I,Marquardt A,Boehm U||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (34:3756)||2014|
Developmental profile and sexually dimorphic expression of kiss1 and kiss1r in the fetal mouse brain.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the developmental- and gender-dependent expression of kiss1 and kiss1r in fetal murine brain
|Knoll JG,Clay CM,Bouma GJ,Henion TR,Schwarting GA,Millar RP,Tobet SA||Frontiers in endocrinology (4:null)||2013|
Gene dosage of Otx2 is important for fertility in male mice.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry the study the effects of Otx2 gene dosage on the fertility of male mice
|Larder R,Kimura I,Meadows J,Clark DD,Mayo S,Mellon PL||Molecular and cellular endocrinology (377:16)||2013|
Lhx2-dependent specification of olfactory sensory neurons is required for successful integration of olfactory, vomeronasal, and GnRH neurons.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of Lhx2 in olfactory sensory neurons in olfactory, vomeronasal and GnRH neuron development
|Berghard A,Hägglund AC,Bohm S,Carlsson L||FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (26:3464)||2012|
Hypothalamic dysregulation and infertility in mice lacking the homeodomain protein Six6.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the role of Six6 in the regulation of GnRH expression
|Larder R,Clark DD,Miller NL,Mellon PL||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (31:426)||2011|
Composition of the migratory mass during development of the olfactory nerve.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the neurnal migration during development of the olfactory nerve
|Miller AM,Treloar HB,Greer CA||The Journal of comparative neurology (518:4825)||2010|
Loss of magel2, a candidate gene for features of Prader-Willi syndrome, impairs reproductive function in mice.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of Magel2 in reproductive function in mice
|Mercer RE,Wevrick R||PloS one (4:null)||2009|
Necdin, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene, regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to study how necdin regulates gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons during development
|Miller NL,Wevrick R,Mellon PL||Human molecular genetics (18:248)||2009|
Heterogeneous expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the adult mouse.
PA1-121 was used in immunohistochemistry to investigate the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 in a subset of adult mouse neurons.
|Leupen SM,Tobet SA,Crowley WF,Kaila K||Endocrinology (144:3031)||2003|
Genetic identification of GnRH receptor neurons: a new model for studying neural circuits underlying reproductive physiology in the mouse brain.
PA1-121 was used in immunocytochemistry to evaluate a new mouse model to study the neuronal basis of reproductive physiology in the brain
|Wen S,Götze IN,Mai O,Schauer C,Leinders-Zufall T,Boehm U||Endocrinology (152:1515)||2011|