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|Tested species reactivity||Goat|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Chicken / IgY|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 488|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against human, mouse and rabbit IgG prior to conjugation|
|Antibody Form||Whole Antibody|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-10 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||1-10 µg/ml|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
|Miscellaneous PubMed (MISC)||See 22 publications below|
To minimize cross-reactivity, these chicken anti-goat IgG (H+L) whole secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and cross-adsorbed against human, mouse, and rabbit IgG prior to conjugation. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 488 dye is a bright, green-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 488 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 488 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 488 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||DISC1 complexes with TRAK1 and Miro1 to modulate anterograde axonal mitochondrial trafficking.||Ogawa F,Malavasi EL,Crummie DK,Eykelenboom JE,Soares DC,Mackie S,Porteous DJ,Millar JK||Human molecular genetics (23:906)||2014|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Laminin and type IV collagen isoform substitutions occur in temporally and spatially distinct patterns in developing kidney glomerular basement membranes.||Abrahamson DR,St John PL,Stroganova L,Zelenchuk A,Steenhard BM||The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society (61:706)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||NHE8 plays important roles in gastric mucosal protection.||Xu H,Li J,Chen H,Wang C,Ghishan FK||American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology (304:G257)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Rad51 paralog complexes BCDX2 and CX3 act at different stages in the BRCA1-BRCA2-dependent homologous recombination pathway.||Chun J,Buechelmaier ES,Powell SN||Molecular and cellular biology (33:387)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Enrichment of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes in primary culture facilitates long-term maintenance of contractility in vitro.||Nguyen PD,Hsiao ST,Sivakumaran P,Lim SY,Dilley RJ||American journal of physiology. Cell physiology (303:C1220)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||High insulin levels are required for FAT/CD36 plasma membrane translocation and enhanced fatty acid uptake in obese Zucker rat hepatocytes.||Buqué X,Cano A,Miquilena-Colina ME,García-Monzón C,Ochoa B,Aspichueta P||American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism (303:E504)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Postprandial inhibition of gastric ghrelin secretion by long-chain fatty acid through GPR120 in isolated gastric ghrelin cells and mice.||Lu X,Zhao X,Feng J,Liou AP,Anthony S,Pechhold S,Sun Y,Lu H,Wank S||American journal of physiology. Gastrointestinal and liver physiology (303:G367)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Kappa opioid receptor localization and coupling to nitric oxide production in cells of the anterior chamber.||Russell-Randall KR,Dortch-Carnes J||Investigative ophthalmology and visual science (52:5233)||2011|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||TCR mimic monoclonal antibodies induce apoptosis of tumor cells via immune effector-independent mechanisms.||Verma B,Jain R,Caseltine S,Rennels A,Bhattacharya R,Markiewski MM,Rawat A,Neethling F,Bickel U,Weidanz JA||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (186:3265)||2011|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Bub1 and CENP-F can contribute to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus genome persistence by targeting LANA to kinetochores.||Xiao B,Verma SC,Cai Q,Kaul R,Lu J,Saha A,Robertson ES||Journal of virology (84:9718)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Local Ca2+ releases enable rapid heart rates in developing cardiomyocytes.||Korhonen T,Rapila R,Ronkainen VP,Koivumäki JT,Tavi P||The Journal of physiology (588:1407)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||High-throughput discovery of synthetic surfaces that support proliferation of pluripotent cells.||Derda R,Musah S,Orner BP,Klim JR,Li L,Kiessling LL||Journal of the American Chemical Society (132:1289)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Vascular regeneration by local growth factor release is self-limited by microvascular clearance.||Le KN,Hwang CW,Tzafriri AR,Lovich MA,Hayward A,Edelman ER||Circulation (119:2928)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Bacterial recognition by TLR7 in the lysosomes of conventional dendritic cells.||Mancuso G,Gambuzza M,Midiri A,Biondo C,Papasergi S,Akira S,Teti G,Beninati C||Nature immunology (10:587)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The armadillo repeat-containing protein, ARMCX3, physically and functionally interacts with the developmental regulatory factor Sox10.||Mou Z,Tapper AR,Gardner PD||The Journal of biological chemistry (284:13629)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Expression of the retinoblastoma protein RbAp48 in exocrine glands leads to Sjögren's syndrome-like autoimmune exocrinopathy.||Ishimaru N,Arakaki R,Yoshida S,Yamada A,Noji S,Hayashi Y||The Journal of experimental medicine (205:2915)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Excitation-contraction coupling of the mouse embryonic cardiomyocyte.||Rapila R,Korhonen T,Tavi P||The Journal of general physiology (132:397)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||pLG72 modulates intracellular D-serine levels through its interaction with D-amino acid oxidase: effect on schizophrenia susceptibility.||Sacchi S,Bernasconi M,Martineau M,Mothet JP,Ruzzene M,Pilone MS,Pollegioni L,Molla G||The Journal of biological chemistry (283:22244)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Activation of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor 1 selectively inhibits CaV3.2 T-type calcium channels.||Tao J,Hildebrand ME,Liao P,Liang MC,Tan G,Li S,Snutch TP,Soong TW||Molecular pharmacology (73:1596)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Hypoxia inducible factor regulates the cardiac expression and secretion of apelin.||Ronkainen VP,Ronkainen JJ,Hänninen SL,Leskinen H,Ruas JL,Pereira T,Poellinger L,Vuolteenaho O,Tavi P||FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (21:1821)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Allergy-driven alternative splicing of IL-13 receptor alpha2 yields distinct membrane and soluble forms.||Tabata Y,Chen W,Warrier MR,Gibson AM,Daines MO,Hershey GK||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (177:7905)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Novel role for RbAp48 in tissue-specific, estrogen deficiency-dependent apoptosis in the exocrine glands.||Ishimaru N,Arakaki R,Omotehara F,Yamada K,Mishima K,Saito I,Hayashi Y||Molecular and cellular biology (26:2924)||2006|