Pseudocolored green-fluorescent labeling represents a fluorescein-labeled cRNA probe detected using a rabbit anti-fluorescein/Oregon Green® primary antibody (Prod # A889) and an Alexa Fluor® 488 dye-labeled anti-rabbit secondary antibody (Prod # A11008). Pseudocolored yellow- and red-fluorescent labeling represents a biotinylated cRNA probe detected using HRP-streptavidin and Alexa Fluor® 568 tyramide (TSA Kit #24, Prod # T20934). Pseudocolored blue-fluorescent labeling represents a digoxigenin-labeled cRNA probe detected using a mouse anti-digoxigenin primary antibody in conjunction with an Alexa Fluor® 647 dye-labeled anti-mouse secondary antibody (Prod # A21235). The image was contributed by Ethan Bier and David Kosman, University of California, San Diego.
|Tested species reactivity||Mouse|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Goat / IgG|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 647|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against human IgG and human serum prior to conjugation|
|Antibody Form||Whole Antibody|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-10 µg/mL|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
|Immunohistochemistry (Frozen) (IHC (F))||See 1 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry - Free Floating (IHC (Free))||See 1 publications below|
|Immunohistochemistry (IHC)||See 1 publications below|
|Miscellaneous PubMed (MISC)||See 31 publications below|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||See 1 publications below|
To minimize cross-reactivity, these goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) whole secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and cross-adsorbed against human IgG and human serum prior to conjugation. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 647 dye is a near-infrared-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 647 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 647 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 647 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Regulating the dorsal neural tube expression of Ptf1a through a distal 3' enhancer.
A-21235 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to assess dorsalneural tube expression of Ptf1a regulated through a distal 3' enhancer
|Mona B,Avila JM,Meredith DM,Kollipara RK,Johnson JE||Developmental biology (418:216)||2016|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
Neuronal activity enhances tau propagation and tau pathology in vivo.
A-21235 was used in immunohistochemistry - free floating to characterize enhanced tau propagation and tau pathology in vivo by neuronal activity
|Wu JW,Hussaini SA,Bastille IM,Rodriguez GA,Mrejeru A,Rilett K,Sanders DW,Cook C,Fu H,Boonen RA,Herman M,Nahmani E,Emrani S,Figueroa YH,Diamond MI,Clelland CL,Wray S,Duff KE||Nature neuroscience (19:1085)||2016|
High-performance probes for light and electron microscopy.
A-21235 was used in immunohistochemistry to develop and characterize 'spaghetti monster' fluorescent proteins
|Viswanathan S,Williams ME,Bloss EB,Stasevich TJ,Speer CM,Nern A,Pfeiffer BD,Hooks BM,Li WP,English BP,Tian T,Henry GL,Macklin JJ,Patel R,Gerfen CR,Zhuang X,Wang Y,Rubin GM,Looger LL||Nature methods (12:568)||2015|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Single-molecule imaging of the functional crosstalk between surface NMDA and dopamine D1 receptors.||Ladepeche L,Dupuis JP,Bouchet D,Doudnikoff E,Yang L,Campagne Y,Bézard E,Hosy E,Groc L||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (110:18005)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||BRAG2/GEP100/IQSec1 interacts with clathrin and regulates α5β1 integrin endocytosis through activation of ADP ribosylation factor 5 (Arf5).||Moravec R,Conger KK,D'Souza R,Allison AB,Casanova JE||The Journal of biological chemistry (287:31138)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) sustains autophagy and limits apoptosis, promoting pancreatic tumor cell survival.||Kang R,Tang D,Schapiro NE,Livesey KM,Farkas A,Loughran P,Bierhaus A,Lotze MT,Zeh HJ||Cell death and differentiation (17:666)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Systems survey of endocytosis by multiparametric image analysis.||Collinet C,Stöter M,Bradshaw CR,Samusik N,Rink JC,Kenski D,Habermann B,Buchholz F,Henschel R,Mueller MS,Nagel WE,Fava E,Kalaidzidis Y,Zerial M||Nature (464:243)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Opposite effects of simvastatin on the bactericidal and inflammatory response of macrophages to opsonized S. aureus.||Benati D,Ferro M,Savino MT,Ulivieri C,Schiavo E,Nuccitelli A,Pasini FL,Baldari CT||Journal of leukocyte biology (87:433)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A protein microarray-based analysis of S-nitrosylation.||Foster MW,Forrester MT,Stamler JS||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (106:18948)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||eIF4E activation is commonly elevated in advanced human prostate cancers and significantly related to reduced patient survival.||Graff JR,Konicek BW,Lynch RL,Dumstorf CA,Dowless MS,McNulty AM,Parsons SH,Brail LH,Colligan BM,Koop JW,Hurst BM,Deddens JA,Neubauer BL,Stancato LF,Carter HW,Douglass LE,Carter JH||Cancer research (69:3866)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Sortase A localizes to distinct foci on the Streptococcus pyogenes membrane.||Raz A,Fischetti VA||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (105:18549)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Profiling antibody responses by multiparametric analysis of primary B cells.||Story CM,Papa E,Hu CC,Ronan JL,Herlihy K,Ploegh HL,Love JC||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (105:17902)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Assessment of golgi apparatus versus plasma membrane-localized multi-drug resistance-associated protein 1.||Kaufmann AM,Toro-Ramos AJ,Krise JP||Molecular pharmaceutics (5:787)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Niemann-Pick C1 functions in regulating lysosomal amine content.||Kaufmann AM,Krise JP||The Journal of biological chemistry (283:24584)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Endophilin B1 as a novel regulator of nerve growth factor/ TrkA trafficking and neurite outgrowth.||Wan J,Cheung AY,Fu WY,Wu C,Zhang M,Mobley WC,Cheung ZH,Ip NY||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (28:9002)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is internalized via a Rac-dependent, dynamin-independent endocytic pathway.||Kumari S,Borroni V,Chaudhry A,Chanda B,Massol R,Mayor S,Barrantes FJ||The Journal of cell biology (181:1179)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Dicer inactivation leads to progressive functional and structural degeneration of the mouse retina.||Damiani D,Alexander JJ,O'Rourke JR,McManus M,Jadhav AP,Cepko CL,Hauswirth WW,Harfe BD,Strettoi E||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (28:4878)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A FRET-based fluorogenic phosphine for live-cell imaging with the Staudinger ligation.||Hangauer MJ,Bertozzi CR||Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (47:2394)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Resolution of de novo HIV production and trafficking in immature dendritic cells.||Turville SG,Aravantinou M,Stössel H,Romani N,Robbiani M||Nature methods (5:75)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Human IRGM induces autophagy to eliminate intracellular mycobacteria.||Singh SB,Davis AS,Taylor GA,Deretic V||Science (New York, N.Y.) (313:1438)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A structural determinant of human cytomegalovirus US2 dictates the down-regulation of class I major histocompatibility molecules.||Oresic K,Noriega V,Andrews L,Tortorella D||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:19395)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A macroporous hydrogel for the coculture of neural progenitor and endothelial cells to form functional vascular networks in vivo.||Ford MC,Bertram JP,Hynes SR,Michaud M,Li Q,Young M,Segal SS,Madri JA,Lavik EB||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (103:2512)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The identification and characterization of two phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 4-phosphatases.||Ungewickell A,Hugge C,Kisseleva M,Chang SC,Zou J,Feng Y,Galyov EE,Wilson M,Majerus PW||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (102:18854)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The role of LIP5 and CHMP5 in multivesicular body formation and HIV-1 budding in mammalian cells.||Ward DM,Vaughn MB,Shiflett SL,White PL,Pollock AL,Hill J,Schnegelberger R,Sundquist WI,Kaplan J||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:10548)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Function and regulation of Tumbleweed (RacGAP50C) in neuroblast proliferation and neuronal morphogenesis.||Goldstein AY,Jan YN,Luo L||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (102:3834)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Protein kinase Calpha activates c-Src and induces podosome formation via AFAP-110.||Gatesman A,Walker VG,Baisden JM,Weed SA,Flynn DC||Molecular and cellular biology (24:7578)||2004|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Caspase activation contributes to delayed death of heat-stressed striatal neurons.||White MG,Emery M,Nonner D,Barrett JN||Journal of neurochemistry (87:958)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Quantitative analysis of protein phosphorylation status and protein kinase activity on microarrays using a novel fluorescent phosphorylation sensor dye.||Martin K,Steinberg TH,Cooley LA,Gee KR,Beechem JM,Patton WF||Proteomics (3:1244)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||RPTP-alpha acts as a transducer of mechanical force on alphav/beta3-integrin-cytoskeleton linkages.||von Wichert G,Jiang G,Kostic A,De Vos K,Sap J,Sheetz MP||The Journal of cell biology (161:143)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Wnt2b controls retinal cell differentiation at the ciliary marginal zone.||Kubo F,Takeichi M,Nakagawa S||Development (Cambridge, England) (130:587)||2003|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Tyrosine phosphorylation of Kv1.2 modulates its interaction with the actin-binding protein cortactin.||Hattan D,Nesti E,Cachero TG,Morielli AD||The Journal of biological chemistry (277:38596)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The intracellular translocation of the components of the fibroblast growth factor 1 release complex precedes their assembly prior to export.||Prudovsky I,Bagala C,Tarantini F,Mandinova A,Soldi R,Bellum S,Maciag T||The Journal of cell biology (158:201)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Human securin proteolysis is controlled by the spindle checkpoint and reveals when the APC/C switches from activation by Cdc20 to Cdh1.||Hagting A,Den Elzen N,Vodermaier HC,Waizenegger IC,Peters JM,Pines J||The Journal of cell biology (157:1125)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Lipid raft microdomains: a gateway for compartmentalized trafficking of Ebola and Marburg viruses.||Bavari S,Bosio CM,Wiegand E,Ruthel G,Will AB,Geisbert TW,Hevey M,Schmaljohn C,Schmaljohn A,Aman MJ||The Journal of experimental medicine (195:593)||2002|
A MAP6-related protein is present in protozoa and is involved in flagellum motility.
A-21235 was used in immunocytochemistry to identify TbSAXO as the first MAP6-related protein identified in Trypanosoma brucei
|Dacheux D,Landrein N,Thonnus M,Gilbert G,Sahin A,Wodrich H,Robinson DR,Bonhivers M||PloS one (7:null)||2012|