Tetrahymena pyriformis were cultured with EdU (A10044), Click-iT® GalNAz glycoprotein labeling reagent (C33365), and InSpeck™ Blue (350/440) Intensity Calibration microspheres (I7221). Following fix/perm using Image-iT™ Fixation/Permeabilization kit (R37602), EdU-incorporated DNA was labeled with Alexa Fluor® 488 azide (A10266) and GalNAz-incorporated cellular components with Alexa Fluor® 555 alkyne (A20013). Cilia were labeled with anti-beta-tubulin Ab (32-2600) and Alexa Fluor® 647 secondary Ab (A21236). Imaging followed mounting in SlowFade® Gold (S36937).
|Tested species reactivity||Mouse|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Goat / IgG|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 647|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against human IgG and serum|
|Antibody Form||F(ab')2 Fragment|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-10 µg/mL|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
To minimize cross-reactivity, these goat anti-mouse IgG (H+L) divalent F(ab')2 secondary antibodies have been affinity purified and cross-adsorbed against human IgG and serum. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 647 dye is a near-infrared-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 647 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 647 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 647 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
SNSMIL, a real-time single molecule identification and localization algorithm for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy.
A-21237 was used in immunocytochemistry to characterize a real-time single molecule that identifies and localizes algorithms for super-resolution fluorescence microscopy called SNSMIL
|Tang Y,Dai L,Zhang X,Li J,Hendriks J,Fan X,Gruteser N,Meisenberg A,Baumann A,Katranidis A,Gensch T||Scientific reports (5:null)||2015|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
A simple method to estimate the average localization precision of a single-molecule localization microscopy experiment.
A-21237 was used in immunocytochemistry to propose a novel routine to estimate the average experimental localization precision in single-molecule localization microscopy.
|Endesfelder U,Malkusch S,Fricke F,Heilemann M||Histochemistry and cell biology (141:629)||2014|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Resolution doubling in 3D-STORM imaging through improved buffers.||Olivier N,Keller D,Gönczy P,Manley S||PloS one (8:null)||2013|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Super-resolution imaging visualizes the eightfold symmetry of gp210 proteins around the nuclear pore complex and resolves the central channel with nanometer resolution.||Löschberger A,van de Linde S,Dabauvalle MC,Rieger B,Heilemann M,Krohne G,Sauer M||Journal of cell science (125:570)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Superresolution microscopy on the basis of engineered dark states.||Steinhauer C,Forthmann C,Vogelsang J,Tinnefeld P||Journal of the American Chemical Society (130:16840)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Subdiffraction-resolution fluorescence imaging of proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane with photoswitchable fluorophores.||van de Linde S,Sauer M,Heilemann M||Journal of structural biology (164:250)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Subdiffraction-resolution fluorescence imaging with conventional fluorescent probes.||Heilemann M,van de Linde S,Schüttpelz M,Kasper R,Seefeldt B,Mukherjee A,Tinnefeld P,Sauer M||Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (47:6172)||2008|