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The abundance of pectin associated with the plasmodesmatal pit fields of kiwifruit cells. Pectin, a component of the cell wall matrix and the main constituent of the middle lamella that forms between daughter cell walls, was tagged with an anti-pectin monoclonal antibody, JIM 5. The primary antibody was detected and visualized with Alexa Fluor® 488 goat anti–rat IgG (A11006). The primary antibody was a gift from Dr. Paul Knox, University of Leeds, U.K. Image contributed by Paul Sutherland, The Horticulture and Food Research Institute of New Zealand, Ltd., Mt. Albert Research Centre.
|Tested species reactivity||Rat|
|Published species reactivity||Not Applicable|
|Host / Isotype||Goat / IgG|
|Immunogen||Gamma Immunoglobins Heavy and Light chains|
|Conjugate||Alexa Fluor® 488|
|Storage buffer||PBS, pH 7.5|
|Contains||5mM sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||4° C, store in dark|
|Cross Adsorption||Against mouse IgG, mouse serum and human serum prior to conjugation|
|Antibody Form||Whole Antibody|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Flow Cytometry (Flow)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||1-10 µg/mL|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||1-10 µg/mL|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
To minimize cross-reactivity, these goat anti-rat IgG whole antibodies have been cross-adsorbed against mouse IgG, mouse serum, and human serum prior to conjugation. Cross-adsorption or pre-adsorption is a purification step to increase specificity of the antibody resulting in higher sensitivity and less background staining. The secondary antibody solution is passed through a column matrix containing immobilized serum proteins from potentially cross-reactive species. Only the nonspecific-binding secondary antibodies are captured in the column, and the highly specific secondaries flow through. The benefits of this extra step are apparent in multiplexing/multicolor-staining experiments (e.g., flow cytometry) where there is potential cross-reactivity with other primary antibodies or in tissue/cell fluorescent staining experiments where there are may be the presence of endogenous immunoglobulins.
Alexa Fluor dyes are among the most trusted fluorescent dyes available today. Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor 488 dye is a bright, green-fluorescent dye with excitation ideally suited to the 488 nm laser line. For stable signal generation in imaging and flow cytometry, Alexa Fluor 488 dye is pH-insensitive over a wide molar range. Probes with high fluorescence quantum yield and high photostability allow detection of low-abundance biological structures with great sensitivity. Alexa Fluor 488 dye molecules can be attached to proteins at high molar ratios without significant self-quenching, enabling brighter conjugates and more sensitive detection. The degree of labeling for each conjugate is typically 2-8 fluorophore molecules per IgG molecule; the exact degree of labeling is indicated on the certificate of analysis for each product lot.
Using conjugate solutions: Centrifuge the protein conjugate solution briefly in a microcentrifuge before use; add only the supernatant to the experiment. This step will help eliminate any protein aggregates that may have formed during storage, thereby reducing nonspecific background staining. Because staining protocols vary with application, the appropriate dilution of antibody should be determined empirically. For the fluorophore-labeled antibodies a final concentration of 1-10 µg/mL should be satisfactory for most immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry applications.
We offer an extensive line of Invitrogen™ secondary antibody conjugates with well-characterized specificity and labeled with a wide selection of premium fluorescent dyes, including Invitrogen™ Alexa Fluor™ fluorescent dyes. Fluorescent secondary antibody conjugates are useful in the detection, sorting, or purification of its specified target and ideal for fluorescence microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, flow cytometry, and fluorescent western detection. The breadth of fluorescent markers we offer allows our reagents to be tailored to almost any fluorescent detection system.
Secondary antibodies may be provided in three formats: whole IgG, divalent F(ab')2 fragments, and monovalent Fab fragments. Because of the high degree of conservation in the structure of many immunoglobulin domains, most class-specific secondary antibodies must be affinity-purified and cross-adsorbed to achieve minimal cross-reaction with other immunoglobulins.
Our secondary antibody conjugates are most commonly prepared by immunizing the host animal with a pooled population of immunoglobulins from the target species and can be further purified and modified (e.g., immunoaffinity chromatography, antibody fragmentation, label conjugation, etc.) to generate highly specific reagents. In the first round of purification, whole immunoglobulins binding to the immunizing antibody are recovered and mainly consist of the ~150-kDa IgG class. Further purification, for example, with Protein A or G, removes all unwanted immunoglobulin classes except the affinity-purified antibodies that react with the target-specific immunoglobulin heavy and/or light chains.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Multilayered, Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogel Formulations Suitable for Automated 3D High Throughput Drug Screening of Cancer-Stromal Cell Cocultures.
A-11006 was used in immunocytochemistry to use a high-throughput 3D hyaluronic acid hydrogel coculture of cancer cells with stromal cells to evaluate chemotherapeutics
|Engel BJ,Constantinou PE,Sablatura LK,Doty NJ,Carson DD,Farach-Carson MC,Harrington DA,Zarembinski TI||Advanced healthcare materials (4:1664)||2015|
Atm deletion with dual recombinase technology preferentially radiosensitizes tumor endothelium.
A-11006 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to test if loss of Atm in endothelial cells sensitizes tumors and normal tissues to radiation.
|Moding EJ,Lee CL,Castle KD,Oh P,Mao L,Zha S,Min HD,Ma Y,Das S,Kirsch DG||The Journal of clinical investigation (124:3325)||2014|
Foxg1 has an essential role in postnatal development of the dentate gyrus.
A-11006 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to determine the function of Foxg1 in postnatal dentate gyrus neurogenesis.
|Tian C,Gong Y,Yang Y,Shen W,Wang K,Liu J,Xu B,Zhao J,Zhao C||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (32:2931)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||
NK receptors, Substance P, Ano1 expression and ultrastructural features of the muscle coat in Cav-1(-/-) mouse ileum.
A-11006 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to use caveolin-1 knockout mice to investigate smooth muscle cells, interstitial cells of Cajal, and neuronal morphology in the intestine.
|Cipriani G,Serboiu CS,Gherghiceanu M,Faussone-Pellegrini MS,Vannucchi MG||Journal of cellular and molecular medicine (15:2411)||2011|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Development of a high-content high-throughput screening assay for the discovery of ATM signaling inhibitors.||Bardelle C,Boros J||Journal of biomolecular screening (17:912)||2012|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Amino acid residues critical for endoplasmic reticulum export and trafficking of platelet-activating factor receptor.||Hirota N,Yasuda D,Hashidate T,Yamamoto T,Yamaguchi S,Nagamune T,Nagase T,Shimizu T,Nakamura M||The Journal of biological chemistry (285:5931)||2010|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Monitoring autophagy in Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative diseases.||Yang DS,Lee JH,Nixon RA||Methods in enzymology (453:111)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Antibody to Langerin/CD207 localizes large numbers of CD8alpha+ dendritic cells to the marginal zone of mouse spleen.||Idoyaga J,Suda N,Suda K,Park CG,Steinman RM||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (106:1524)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Involvement of mitochondrial signaling pathways in the mechanism of Fas-mediated apoptosis after spinal cord injury.||Yu WR,Liu T,Fehlings TK,Fehlings MG||The European journal of neuroscience (29:114)||2009|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Identification of a motif in the acetylcholine receptor beta subunit whose phosphorylation regulates rapsyn association and postsynaptic receptor localization.||Borges LS,Yechikhov S,Lee YI,Rudell JB,Friese MB,Burden SJ,Ferns MJ||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (28:11468)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The NALP3 inflammasome is involved in the innate immune response to amyloid-beta.||Halle A,Hornung V,Petzold GC,Stewart CR,Monks BG,Reinheckel T,Fitzgerald KA,Latz E,Moore KJ,Golenbock DT||Nature immunology (9:857)||2008|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Characterization of rat rostral raphe primary cultures: multiplex quantification of serotonergic markers.||Czesak M,Burns AM,Remes Lenicov F,Albert PR||Journal of neuroscience methods (164:59)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Characterization of CaMKII-expressing neurons within a striatal region implicated in avian vocal learning.||Hein AM,Sridharan A,Nordeen KW,Nordeen EJ||Brain research (1155:125)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||A protocol for dissecting Drosophila melanogaster brains for live imaging or immunostaining.||Wu JS,Luo L||Nature protocols (1:2110)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Asymmetric T lymphocyte division in the initiation of adaptive immune responses.||Chang JT,Palanivel VR,Kinjyo I,Schambach F,Intlekofer AM,Banerjee A,Longworth SA,Vinup KE,Mrass P,Oliaro J,Killeen N,Orange JS,Russell SM,Weninger W,Reiner SL||Science (New York, N.Y.) (315:1687)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis in Trypanosoma brucei.||Stephens JL,Lee SH,Paul KS,Englund PT||The Journal of biological chemistry (282:4427)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||MEGF9: a novel transmembrane protein with a strong and developmentally regulated expression in the nervous system.||Brandt-Bohne U,Keene DR,White FA,Koch M||The Biochemical journal (401:447)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Wnt2 coordinates the commitment of mesoderm to hematopoietic, endothelial, and cardiac lineages in embryoid bodies.||Wang H,Gilner JB,Bautch VL,Wang DZ,Wainwright BJ,Kirby SL,Patterson C||The Journal of biological chemistry (282:782)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The tetraspanin CD9 mediates lateral association of MHC class II molecules on the dendritic cell surface.||Unternaehrer JJ,Chow A,Pypaert M,Inaba K,Mellman I||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (104:234)||2007|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The role of Pax-6 in lens regeneration.||Madhavan M,Haynes TL,Frisch NC,Call MK,Minich CM,Tsonis PA,Del Rio-Tsonis K||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (103:14848)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Ca2+ and synaptotagmin VII-dependent delivery of lysosomal membrane to nascent phagosomes.||Czibener C,Sherer NM,Becker SM,Pypaert M,Hui E,Chapman ER,Mothes W,Andrews NW||The Journal of cell biology (174:997)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Ets-1-dependent expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors is activated by latency-associated nuclear antigen of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus through interaction with Daxx.||Murakami Y,Yamagoe S,Noguchi K,Takebe Y,Takahashi N,Uehara Y,Fukazawa H||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:28113)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||WNK1 kinase isoform switch regulates renal potassium excretion.||Wade JB,Fang L,Liu J,Li D,Yang CL,Subramanya AR,Maouyo D,Mason A,Ellison DH,Welling PA||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (103:8558)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Features of medullary thymic epithelium implicate postnatal development in maintaining epithelial heterogeneity and tissue-restricted antigen expression.||Gillard GO,Farr AG||Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950) (176:5815)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Proliferating human cells hypomorphic for origin recognition complex 2 and pre-replicative complex formation have a defect in p53 activation and Cdk2 kinase activation.||Teer JK,Machida YJ,Labit H,Novac O,Hyrien O,Marheineke K,Zannis-Hadjopoulos M,Dutta A||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:6253)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The chromatoid body of male germ cells: similarity with processing bodies and presence of Dicer and microRNA pathway components.||Kotaja N,Bhattacharyya SN,Jaskiewicz L,Kimmins S,Parvinen M,Filipowicz W,Sassone-Corsi P||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (103:2647)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Collagen XXVIII, a novel von Willebrand factor A domain-containing protein with many imperfections in the collagenous domain.||Veit G,Kobbe B,Keene DR,Paulsson M,Koch M,Wagener R||The Journal of biological chemistry (281:3494)||2006|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Targeted ablation of plectin isoform 1 uncovers role of cytolinker proteins in leukocyte recruitment.||Abrahamsberg C,Fuchs P,Osmanagic-Myers S,Fischer I,Propst F,Elbe-Bürger A,Wiche G||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (102:18449)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Gamma-secretase is a functional component of phagosomes.||Jutras I,Laplante A,Boulais J,Brunet S,Thinakaran G,Desjardins M||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:36310)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Identification of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor recycling and its role in maintaining receptor density at the neuromuscular junction in vivo.||Bruneau E,Sutter D,Hume RI,Akaaboune M||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (25:9949)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Glycosylation influences the lectin activities of the macrophage mannose receptor.||Su Y,Bakker T,Harris J,Tsang C,Brown GD,Wormald MR,Gordon S,Dwek RA,Rudd PM,Martinez-Pomares L||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:32811)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||GABAergic excitation promotes neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal progenitor cells.||Tozuka Y,Fukuda S,Namba T,Seki T,Hisatsune T||Neuron (47:803)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Hypoxia-inducible factor-1-dependent overexpression of myeloid cell factor-1 protects hypoxic cells against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced apoptosis.||Piret JP,Minet E,Cosse JP,Ninane N,Debacq C,Raes M,Michiels C||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:9336)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Function and regulation of Tumbleweed (RacGAP50C) in neuroblast proliferation and neuronal morphogenesis.||Goldstein AY,Jan YN,Luo L||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (102:3834)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Cluster formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor requires its transition to open state.||Tateishi Y,Hattori M,Nakayama T,Iwai M,Bannai H,Nakamura T,Michikawa T,Inoue T,Mikoshiba K||The Journal of biological chemistry (280:6816)||2005|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Disturbed cholesterol traffic but normal proteolytic function in LAMP-1/LAMP-2 double-deficient fibroblasts.||Eskelinen EL,Schmidt CK,Neu S,Willenborg M,Fuertes G,Salvador N,Tanaka Y,Lüllmann-Rauch R,Hartmann D,Heeren J,von Figura K,Knecht E,Saftig P||Molecular biology of the cell (15:3132)||2004|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Olfactory horizontal basal cells demonstrate a conserved multipotent progenitor phenotype.||Carter LA,MacDonald JL,Roskams AJ||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (24:5670)||2004|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The tyrp1-Tag/tyrp1-FGFR1-DN bigenic mouse: a model for selective inhibition of tumor development, angiogenesis, and invasion into the neural tissue by blockade of fibroblast growth factor receptor activity.||Rousseau B,Larrieu-Lahargue F,Javerzat S,Guilhem-Ducléon F,Beermann F,Bikfalvi A||Cancer research (64:2490)||2004|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Transformation of olfactory representations in the Drosophila antennal lobe.||Wilson RI,Turner GC,Laurent G||Science (New York, N.Y.) (303:366)||2004|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Meiotic cohesion requires accumulation of ORD on chromosomes before condensation.||Balicky EM,Endres MW,Lai C,Bickel SE||Molecular biology of the cell (13:3890)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Distinct intracellular calcium transients in neurites and somata integrate neuronal signals.||Johenning FW,Zochowski M,Conway SJ,Holmes AB,Koulen P,Ehrlich BE||The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience (22:5344)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The intraflagellar transport protein, IFT88, is essential for vertebrate photoreceptor assembly and maintenance.||Pazour GJ,Baker SA,Deane JA,Cole DG,Dickert BL,Rosenbaum JL,Witman GB,Besharse JC||The Journal of cell biology (157:103)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||[Beta]IV-spectrin regulates sodium channel clustering through ankyrin-G at axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier.||Komada M,Soriano P||The Journal of cell biology (156:337)||2002|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Laser-based microscopic approaches: application to cell signaling in environmental lung disease.||Taatjes DJ,Palmer CJ,Pantano C,Hoffmann SB,Cummins A,Mossman BT||BioTechniques (31:880)||2001|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The chaperone protein 14-3-3eta interacts with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha 4 subunit. Evidence for a dynamic role in subunit stabilization.||Jeanclos EM,Lin L,Treuil MW,Rao J,DeCoster MA,Anand R||The Journal of biological chemistry (276:28281)||2001|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Mouse LYVE-1 is an endocytic receptor for hyaluronan in lymphatic endothelium.||Prevo R,Banerji S,Ferguson DJ,Clasper S,Jackson DG||The Journal of biological chemistry (276:19420)||2001|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Concentration of MHC class II molecules in lipid rafts facilitates antigen presentation.||Anderson HA,Hiltbold EM,Roche PA||Nature immunology (1:156)||2000|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Angiogenesis monitored by perfusion with a space-filling microbead suspension.||Springer ML,Ip TK,Blau HM||Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy (1:82)||2000|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Novel functions of nanos in downregulating mitosis and transcription during the development of the Drosophila germline.||Deshpande G,Calhoun G,Yanowitz JL,Schedl PD||Cell (99:271)||1999|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Analysis of CD44-containing lipid rafts: Recruitment of annexin II and stabilization by the actin cytoskeleton.||Oliferenko S,Paiha K,Harder T,Gerke V,Schwärzler C,Schwarz H,Beug H,Günthert U,Huber LA||The Journal of cell biology (146:843)||1999|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||The Treponema denticola major sheath protein is predominantly periplasmic and has only limited surface exposure.||Caimano MJ,Bourell KW,Bannister TD,Cox DL,Radolf JD||Infection and immunity (67:4072)||1999|
|Not Applicable||Not Cited||Redundant and distinct functions for dynamin-1 and dynamin-2 isoforms.||Altschuler Y,Barbas SM,Terlecky LJ,Tang K,Hardy S,Mostov KE,Schmid SL||The Journal of cell biology (143:1871)||1998|
|Not Applicable||20 µg/ml||
Discontinuous LYVE-1 expression in corneal limbal lymphatics: dual function as microvalves and immunological hot spots.
A-11006 was used in immunohistochemistry to examine LYVE-1 expression in corneal lymphatics.
|Nakao S,Zandi S,Faez S,Kohno R,Hafezi-Moghadam A||FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (26:808)||2012|