Immunofluorescence analysis of HTT Antibody (3-19) was performed using 70% confluent log phase U-87 MG cells. The cells were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde for 10 minutes, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton™ X-100 for 10 minutes, and blocked with 1% BSA for 1 hour at room temperature. The cells were labeled with HTT (3-19) Mouse Monoclonal Antibody (MA1115) at 2ug/ml in 0.1% BSA and incubated for 3 hours at room temperature and then labeled with Goat anti-Mouse IgG (H+L) Superclonal™ Secondary Antibody, Alexa Fluor® 488 conjugate (A28175) at a dilution of 1:2000 for 45 minutes at room temperature (Panel a: green). Nuclei (Panel b: blue) were stained with SlowFade® Gold Antifade Mountant with DAPI (S36938). F-actin (Panel c: red) was stained with Alexa Fluor® 555 Rhodamine Phalloidin (Product # R415, 1:300). Panel d represents the merged image showing cytoplasmic localization. Panel e shows the control without primary antibody. The images were captured at 60X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Human, Mouse|
|Host / Isotype||Mouse / IgG|
|Immunogen||Synthetic peptide conjugated to KLH via cysteine corresponding to residues C-HTLQADSVD (505-513) of Human HTT.|
|Storage buffer||PBS with 1mg/ml BSA|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Immunocytochemistry (ICC)||2 µg/ml|
|Immunofluorescence (IF)||2 µg/ml|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:500|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
MA1-115 has been successfully used in immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, Western Blot, and ELISA applications with human and mouse samples.
Neoepitope antibodies distinguish smaller cleaved fragments or processed forms of proteins versus the intact full-length or precursor by using a designed peptide purification process to maximize immunoreactivity to a specific cleavage site.
Human HTT caspase cleavage sites generate fragment-specific forms of the protein. Caspase-3/7 has been shown to generate cleavage sites at animo acids 513 and 552. Caspase-2 cleaves at amino acid 552 and caspase-6 at amino acid 586. Neo-specific antibody MA1-057 recognizes the 513 cleaved fragment without detecting the full-length form.
Huntingtin is a disease gene linked to Huntington's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of striatal neurons. This is thought to be caused by an expanded, unstable trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin gene, which translates as a polyglutamine repeat in the protein product. The huntingtin locus is large, spanning 180 kb and consisting of 67 exons. The huntingtin gene is widely expressed and is required for normal development. It is expressed as 2 alternatively polyadenylated forms displaying different relative abundance in various fetal and adult tissues. The larger transcript is approximately 13.7 kb and is expressed predominantly in adult and fetal brain whereas the smaller transcript of approximately 10.3 kb is more widely expressed. The genetic defect leading to Huntington's disease may not necessarily eliminate transcription, but may confer a new property on the mRNA or alter the function of the protein.
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