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Members of the Id family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins include ID1, ID2, ID3 and ID4. They are ubiquitously expressed and dimerize with members of the class A and B HLH proteins. Due to the absence of the basic region, the resulting heterodimers cannot bind DNA. The ID-type proteins thus appear to negatively regulate DNA binding of bHLH proteins. Since ID1 inhibits DNA binding of E12 and Myo D, it apparently functions to inhibit muscle-specific gene expression. Under conditions that facilitate muscle cell differentiation, the ID protein levels fall, allowing E12 and/or E47 to form heterodimers with Myo D and myogenin, which in turn activate myogenic differentiation. It has been shown that expression of each of the ID proteins is strongly dependent on growth factor activation and that reduction of ID mRNA levels by antisense oligonucleotides leads to a delayed reentry of arrested cells into the cell cycle following growth factor stimulation.
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Protein Aliases: bHLHb25; Class B basic helix-loop-helix protein 25; DNA-binding protein inhibitor ID-3; HEIR 1; Helix-loop-helix protein HEIR-1; HLH642; ID 3; ID-like protein inhibitor HLH 1R21; Inhibitor of differentiation 3; Inhibitor of DNA binding 3; inhibitor of DNA binding 3, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein
Gene Aliases: 1R21; BHLHB25; HEIR-1; HEIR1; ID3
UniProt ID: (Human) Q02535
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 3399
Molecular Function: DNA-binding transcription factor