Description: This SNKY35 monoclonal antibody reacts with human p35, a component of two of the four members of the interleukin (IL)-12 family of cytokines. The IL-12 family members are heterodimeric cytokines composed of an alpha-chain, such as p35, and a beta-chain, such as p40. The alpha-chain proteins are thought to be the limiting factors for secretion of IL-12 family member cytokines, as expression of the alpha-chain is more restricted than that of the beta-chain proteins, and the two subunits may need to be co-expressed in order for cytokine secretion to occur. IL-12 family members are secreted primarily by antigen-presenting cells in response to various TLR agonists and other inflammatory stimuli. The exact types of stimuli present and kinetics of stimulation determine the balance of IL-12 family member production.
The p35 protein was first identified as part of the IL-12 cytokine, which is also known as IL-12p70. Secretion is induced by IFN gamma and agonists of TLR3, 4, or 7 and is inhibited by Th2 cytokines. IL-12 is essential for the differentiation and maintenance of Th1 cells. The other subunit, p40, is expressed in much higher quantities than p35, and may be secreted independently as a monomer or homodimer. Free p40 may act as an antagonist of IL-12 function.
More recently, p35 was also found to dimerize with EBI3 (Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Gene 3) to form IL-35. The biology of IL-35 is incompletely understood, and it is believed to be unique among the IL-12 family members in its expression and function. It is produced by regulatory T cells, and appears to have immunoregulatory functions. IL-35 has been found to suppress the proliferation and function of effector T cells, and has also been observed to induce a regulatory phenotype on naive CD4+ cells cultured in its presence.
Testing of SNKY35 in the context of IL-35 is currently in process. For additional information, please contact technical support.
Applications Reported: This SNKY35 antibody has been reported for use in intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis.
Applications Tested: This SNKY35 antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by intracellular staining and flow cytometric analysis of stimulated human peripheral blood cells. This can be used at 5 µL (0.03 µg) per test. A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. Cell number should be determined empirically but can range from 10^5 to 10^8 cells/test.
eFluor® 660 is a replacement for Alexa Fluor® 647. eFluor® 660 emits at 659 nm and is excited with the red laser (633 nm). Please make sure that your instrument is capable of detecting this fluorochome.
Excitation: 633-647 nm; Emission: 668 nm; Laser: Red Laser.
Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered.
Interleukin 12A is a novel signaling cytokine belonging to the Interleukin-6 protein superfamily. Interleukin-12 alpha chain precursor (IL-12A) is a 35-kD subunit of disulfide-linked heterodimer of cytokine IL-12 and has a broad array of biological activities. Reports suggest that IL-12A can act as a growth factor for activated T and NK cells and enhance the lytic activity of NK/lymphokine-activated Killer cells. IL-12A stimulates the production of IFN-gamma by resting PBMC as well as T-cell-independent induction of interferon (IFN)-gamma, and helps in the differentiation of both Th1 and Th2 cells. It is also involved in positive regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat4 protein. The signaling process of IL-12A in innate immunity requires nitric oxide synthase 2A. Along with EBI3, IL-12A forms a novel heterodimeric cytokine, designated as interleukin-35 (IL-35), that may be specifically produced by T reg cells and is required for maximal suppressive activity.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Protein Aliases: CLMF p35; cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 1, p35; Cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 35 kDa subunit; IL-12 subunit p35; IL-12, subunit p35; IL-12A; IL35 subunit; interleukin 12, p35; interleukin 12A (natural killer cell stimulatory factor 1, cytotoxic lymphocyte maturation factor 1, p35); interleukin-12 alpha chain; Interleukin-12 subunit alpha; NF cell stimulatory factor chain 1; NK cell stimulatory factor chain 1; NKSF1
Gene Aliases: CLMF; IL-12A; IL12A; NFSK; NKSF1; P35
UniProt ID: (Human) P29459
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 3592