Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a calcium-dependent ester hydrolase that is tightly associated with apoA-I in HDL. PON1 prevents the oxidation of LDL, thereby the formation of atherogenic oxidised-LDL. Polymorphisms of the human PON1 gene are correlated with coronary artery disease, indicating a genetic association between PON1 and coronary artery disease. PON1 activity is lower in subjects prone to development of atherosclerosis such as in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, familial hypercholesterolemia, and renal disease, indicating the involvement of PON1 in atherosclerosis development. PON2 is a ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein that can protect cells against oxidative damage. PON3 is similar to PON1 in activity but differs from it in substrate specificity. PON1 and PON3 are implicated in lowering the risk of developing coronary artery disease and atherosclerosis. Human PON3 protein shares the 3 conserved cysteine residues identified in PON1, suggesting their importance of in vivo activities. PON1-based catalytic scavengers can be a way to safe and effective organophosphate intoxication.
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Protein Aliases: arylesterase 3; paraoxanase-3; Serum paraoxonase/lactonase 3
Gene Aliases: PON3
UniProt ID: (Human) Q15166
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 5446