Immunofluorescent analysis of PPAR gamma (red) in 3T3-L1 differentiated day 7 cells. The cells were fixed with 4% <br />paraformaldehyde in PBS for 15 minutes at room temperature, permeabilized with 0.1% Triton X-100 for 15 minutes, and blocked with 3% BSA for 30 minutes at room temperature. Cells were stained with a PPAR gamma rabbit polyclonal antibody (Product # PA1-824) at a dilution of 1:200 in blocking buffer for 1 hour at room temperature, and then incubated with a Goat anti-Rabbit IgG (H+L) Secondary Antibody, Dylight 680 (Product # 35568) at a dilution of 1:1000 for at least 30 minutes at room temperature in the dark (red). Lipids (green) were stained with HCS LipidTOX neutral lipid stain (Product # H34475) at a dilution of 1:200 for at least 30 minutes at room temperature in the dark. Nuclei (blue) were stained with Hoechst 33342 (Product # 62249). Images were taken on a EVOS FL Auto Imaging System at 20X magnification.
|Tested species reactivity||Human, Mouse|
|Published species reactivity||Non-human primate, Human, Mouse|
|Host / Isotype||Rabbit / IgG|
|Immunogen||Synthetic peptide corresponding to residues M(1) G E T L G D S P I D P E S D S(16) C of human PPAR gamma-2.|
|Purification||Antigen affinity chromatography|
|Storage buffer||PBS with 1mg/ml BSA|
|Contains||0.05% sodium azide|
|Storage Conditions||-20° C, Avoid Freeze/Thaw Cycles|
|Tested Applications||Dilution *|
|Western Blot (WB)||1:500|
* Suggested working dilutions are given as a guide only. It is recommended that the user titrate the product for use in their own experiment using appropriate negative and positive controls.
PA1-824 detects peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) gamma 2 from human and mouse tissues. This antibody does not detect PPAR alpha or PPAR delta.
PA1-824 has been successfully used in Western blot and immunofluorescence procedures. By Western blot, this antibody detects an ~56 kDa protein representing PPAR gamma 2 from NIH-3T3 cell lysate. PA1-824 inhibits PPAR gamma 2 DNA binding.
PA1-824 immunogen is a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues M(1) G E T L G D S P I D P E S D S(16) C of human PPAR gamma-2. This sequence is not conserved in PPAR gamma-1.
Peroxisome proliferators are non-genotoxic carcinogens which are purported to exert their effect on cells through their interaction with members of the nuclear hormone receptor family, termed peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-dependent intracellular proteins that stimulate transcription of specific genes by binding to specific DNA sequences following activation by the appropriate ligand. Studies indicate that PPARs are activated by peroxisome proliferators such as clofibric acid, nafenopin, and WY-14,643, as well as by some fatty acids. It has also been shown that PPARs can induce transcription of acyl coenzyme A oxidase and cytochrome P450 A6 (CYP450 A6) through interaction with specific response elements. PPAR alpha is activated by free fatty acids including linoleic, arachidonic, and oleic acids. Induction of peroxisomes by this mechanism leads to a reduction in blood triglyceride levels. PPAR alpha is expressed mainly in skeletal muscle, heart, liver, and kidney and is thought to regulate many genes involved in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Activation of rat liver PPAR alpha has been shown to suppress hepatocyte apoptosis. PPAR gamma 2, like several other nuclear hormone receptors, heterodimerizes with retinoic X receptor (RXR) alpha to form a transcriptionally competent complex.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures. Not for resale without express authorization.
Effect of retinoic acid and vitamin D3 on osteoblast differentiation and activity in aging.
PA1-824 was used in immunocytochemistry to study the age-dependent effects of retinoic acid and calcitriol on PPARgamma2 signaling in osteoblast
|Bosetti M,Sabbatini M,Calarco A,Borrone A,Peluso G,Cannas M||Journal of bone and mineral metabolism (34:65)||2016|
A human peripheral blood monocyte-derived subset acts as pluripotent stem cells.
PA1-824 was used in immunocytochemistry To investigate the pluripotency of the monocyte derived from human peripheral blood
|Zhao Y,Glesne D,Huberman E||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (100:2426)||2003|
Lipid-Laden Multilocular Cells in the Aging Thymus Are Phenotypically Heterogeneous.
PA1-824 was used in immunohistochemistry - frozen section to characterize intrathymic lipid-laden multilocular cells in the aging thymus
|Langhi LG,Andrade LR,Shimabukuro MK,van Ewijk W,Taub DD,Borojevic R,de Mello Coelho V||PloS one (10:null)||2015|
Dietary ß-conglycinin prevents fatty liver induced by a high-fat diet by a decrease in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ¿2 protein.
PA1-824 was used in western blot to study the mechanism for the effect of dietary conglycinin on hepatic lipogenesis
|Yamazaki T,Kishimoto K,Miura S,Ezaki O||The Journal of nutritional biochemistry (23:123)||2012|
An increase in liver PPAR¿2 is an initial event to induce fatty liver in response to a diet high in butter: PPAR¿2 knockdown improves fatty liver induced by high-saturated fat.
PA1-824 was used in western blot to investigate the role of PPARgamma2 on fat liver formation mediated by high-saturated fat
|Yamazaki T,Shiraishi S,Kishimoto K,Miura S,Ezaki O||The Journal of nutritional biochemistry (22:543)||2011|
Signaling and biological effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human bone marrow.
PA1-824 was used in western blot to investigate the influence of glucagon-like peptide 1 on the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells
|Sanz C,Vázquez P,Blázquez C,Barrio PA,Alvarez Mdel M,Blázquez E||American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism (298:E634)||2010|
Fat-storing multilocular cells expressing CCR5 increase in the thymus with advancing age: potential role for CCR5 ligands on the differentiation and migration of preadipocytes.
PA1-824 was used in western blot to characterize receptor activity during fat-storage in the thymus
|Mello Coelho Vd,Bunbury A,Rangel LB,Giri B,Weeraratna A,Morin PJ,Bernier M,Taub DD||International journal of medical sciences (7:1)||2009|
Overexpression and ribozyme-mediated targeting of transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein and p300 revealed their indispensable roles in adipocyte differentiation through the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.
PA1-824 was used in western blot to investigate the role of CBP and p300 in the activation of PPARgama and the adipocyte differentiation.
|Takahashi N,Kawada T,Yamamoto T,Goto T,Taimatsu A,Aoki N,Kawasaki H,Taira K,Yokoyama KK,Kamei Y,Fushiki T||The Journal of biological chemistry (277:16906)||2002|
Platelet-derived growth factor promotes the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in vascular smooth muscle cells by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway.
PA1-824 was used in western blot to investigate the role of platelet-derived growth factor on the expression of PPARgamma in vascular smooth muscle cells
|Fu M,Zhu X,Wang Q,Zhang J,Song Q,Zheng H,Ogawa W,Du J,Chen YE||Circulation research (89:1058)||2001|
|Non-human primate||Not Cited||
Diverse signaling pathways modulate nuclear receptor recruitment of N-CoR and SMRT complexes.
PA1-824 was used in western blot to study the modulatory mechanism for the nuclear receptor recruitment of N-CoR and SMRT complexes
|Lavinsky RM,Jepsen K,Heinzel T,Torchia J,Mullen TM,Schiff R,Del-Rio AL,Ricote M,Ngo S,Gemsch J,Hilsenbeck SG,Osborne CK,Glass CK,Rosenfeld MG,Rose DW||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (95:2920)||1998|
Perivascular cells expressing annexin A5 define a novel mesenchymal stem cell-like population with the capacity to differentiate into multiple mesenchymal lineages.
PA1-824 was used in immunohistochemistry to evaluate the annexin A5 as a marker for multipotent stem cell population
|Brachvogel B,Moch H,Pausch F,Schlötzer-Schrehardt U,Hofmann C,Hallmann R,von der Mark K,Winkler T,Pöschl E||Development (Cambridge, England) (132:2657)||2005|
ADAM 12 protease induces adipogenesis in transgenic mice.
PA1-824 was used in immunohistochemistry to study the role of ADAM 12 protease in adipogenesis.
|Kawaguchi N,Xu X,Tajima R,Kronqvist P,Sundberg C,Loechel F,Albrechtsen R,Wewer UM||The American journal of pathology (160:1895)||2002|
MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells contain a functional peroxisomal response.
PA1-824 was used in EMSA assay to characterize MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells in terms of peroxisomal response
|Kilgore MW,Tate PL,Rai S,Sengoku E,Price TM||Molecular and cellular endocrinology (129:229)||1997|