Distinct DNA repair pathways minimize the consequences of mutagenic events. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are highly reactive atoms with an unpaired electron that are conducive to double-strand DNA breaking events. Artemis, named after the Greek goddess for the protection of children, is one of the major proteins contributing to the preservation of double-strand breaks in DNA by cutting away the damaged parts of the DNA, which allows the strands to rejoin. Artemis is a single-strand-specific 5' to 3' exonuclease that forms a complex with the 469 kDa DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). DNA-PKcs phosphorylates Artemis, and Artemis acquires endonucleolytic activity on 5' and 3' overhangs and hairpins. These activities are essential for V(D)J recombination and for the 5' and 3' overhang processing in nonhomologous DNA end joining.
Protein Aliases: ANKRD33; FLJ34236; PP6C; protein phosphatase 6, catalytic subunit; serine/threonine protein phosphatase catalytic subunit; Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 6 catalytic subunit; Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 6 catalytic subunit, N-terminally processed; UNQ5837
Gene Aliases: PP6; PP6C; PPP6; PPP6C
UniProt ID: (Human) O00743
Entrez Gene ID: (Human) 5537
Molecular Function: protein phosphatase