ERK1 and ERK2 are widely expressed and are involved in the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Many different stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, virus infection, ligands for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors and transforming agents, activate the ERK1 and ERK2 pathways. When growth factors bind to the receptor tyrosine kinase, Ras interacts with Raf, the serine/threonine protein kinase and activates it as well. Once actived, Raf phosphorylates serine residue in 2 further kinases, MEK1/2, which in turn phosphorylates tyrosine/threonine in extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Upon activation, the ERKs either phosphorylate a number of cytoplasmic targets or migrate to the nucleus, where they phosphorylate and activate a number of transcription factors such as c-Fos and Elk-1.
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Protein Aliases: ERK-1; ERK-2; erk1 erk2; ERK1b; ERT1; ERT2; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1; Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2; extracellular signal-related kinase 1; extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 2; Insulin-stimulated MAP2 kinase; MAP kinase 1; MAP kinase 2; MAP kinase 3; MAP kinase isoform p42; MAP kinase isoform p44; MAPK 1; MAPK 2; MAPK 3; Microtubule-associated protein 2 kinase; mitogen activated protein kinase 1; mitogen-activated 3; Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1; Mitogen-activated protein kinase 2; Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3; MNK1; p42 MAP Kinase; p42-MAPK; p44 MAP kinase; p44-ERK1; p44-MAPK; pp42/MAP kinase; protein tyrosine kinase ERK2
Gene Aliases: 9030612K14Rik; AA407128; AU018647; C78273; ERK; ERK-1; ERK-2; ERK1; ERK2; ERT1; ERT2; Esrk1; HS44KDAP; HUMKER1A; Mapk; MAPK1; MAPK2; MAPK3; MNK1; Mtap2k; p38; p40; p41; p41mapk; p42-MAPK; P42MAPK; p44; p44-ERK1; p44-MAPK; P44ERK1; P44MAPK; PRKM1; PRKM2; PRKM3