In mammals, there are several identified isoforms of p21-Activated Protein Kinases or PAKs: alpha-PAK (also known as PAK-1) and beta-PAK (also known as PAK-3) are mostly brain-specific, while gamma-PAK (also known as PAK-2) is expressed ubiquitously (Jakobi et al., 2003). Mutations of the gene coding for PAK-3 are associated wit X-linked mental retardation and recent work indicates that PAK-3 is a key regulator of synapse formation and plasticity in the hippocampus (Boda et al., 2004). PAK-3 is thought to play a key role in regulation of cell shape and motility as well as cell death (Jakobi et al., 2003; Walter et al., 1998). Autophosphorylation of Thr402 in the protein has been found to be essential for activation of PAK (Jakobi et al., 2000).
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Protein Aliases: ADRB2; adriamycin resistance-associated; Alpha-PAK; Beta-PAK; C-t-PAK2; CDKN1A; EC 220.127.116.11; gamma pak; Gamma-PAK; hPAK3; kinase PAK1; Oligophrenin-3; p21 (CDKN1A)-activated kinase 2; p21 (CDKN1A)-activated kinase 3; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3; p21-activated kinase 1; p21-activated kinase 2; p21-activated kinase 3; p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (STE20 homolog, yeast); p21/Cdc42/Rac1-activated kinase 1 (yeast Ste20-related); p27; p34; p58; p65-PAK; PAK 1; PAK alpha; PAK beta; PAK gamma; PAK-1; PAK-2; PAK-2p27; PAK-2p34; PAK-3; PAK65; S6/H4 kinase; Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 1; Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 2; Serine/threonine-protein kinase PAK 3; STE20 homolog, yeast
Gene Aliases: ARA; beta-PAK; bPAK; MRX30; MRX47; OPHN3; PAK-3; PAK1; PAK2; PAK3; PAK3beta; PAK65; PAKalpha; PAKgamma
Molecular Function: non-receptor serine/threonine protein kinase